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The threat of Islamic terrorism in Europe

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The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 realized to the international community that there are new challenges and threats, which in a completely different light presented the phenomenon of terrorism. They are characterized by an extremely significant result of social, psychological and media. The international situation has undergone dynamic changes. Conditions of international security has changed. The duty of the EU countries is to fight against this kind of threats. Ensuring the safety of citizens within the EU is the responsibility of each state element thereof. This paper deals with the problem of the threat of Islamic terrorism on the territory of the Community. The author tries to present it in the most transparent manner this threat, as well as selected aspects of counteracting this phenomenon.
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  • Elblag University of Humanities and Economy, Elblag, Poland
  • [1] Gearty, Conor, Terrorism, Published by Ashgate Dartmouth, Aldershot 1996.
  • [2] de Londras Fiona, Doody, Josephine, The Impact, Legitimacy and Effectiveness of EU Counter-Terrorism, Published by Routledge, London and New York, 2015.
  • [3] The Treaty on European Union is one of the primary Treaties of the European Union, alongside the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The TEU forms the basis of EU law, by setting out general principle's of the EU's purpose, the governance of its central institutions (such as the Commission, Parliament, and Council), as well as the rules on external, foreign and security policy. While the current version of the TEU entered into force in 2009, following the Treaty of Lisbon (2007), the older form of the same document was implemented by the Treaty of Maastricht (1992).
  • [4] European Security Strategy, a Secure Europe in a Better World, Brussels, 12 December 2003.
  • [5] The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), formerly known as the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects, as well as civilian crisis management. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defence Identity under NATO, but differs in that it falls under the jurisdiction of the European Union itself, including countries with no ties to NATO. Formally, the CSDP is the domain of the European Council, which is an EU institution, whereby the heads of member states meet. Nonetheless, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. As Chairperson of the external relations configuration of the Council, the High Representative prepares and examines decisions to be made before they are brought to the Council.
  • [6] Schmid, Alex P., editor, The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research, Published by Routledge, New York 2011.
  • [7] Karmon's, Ely, Coalitions Between Terrorist Organizations: Revolutionaries, Nationalists, and Islamists, Published by Brill Academic Pub, Boston 2005.
  • [8] Phillips, Melanie, Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within, Published by Encounter Books, London 2007.
  • [9] Pisoiu, Daniela, Islamist Radicalisation in Europe: An Occupational Change Process, Published by Routledge, New York 2011.
  • [10] Pargeter, Allison, The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe, Published by University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2008.
  • [11] Fukuyama, Francis, America at the Crossroads. Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy, Published by Yale University Press, Washington 2006.
  • [12] Pargeter, Allison, op. cit.
  • [13] Huntington, Samuel P., The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Published by Simon & Schuster, New York 1997.
  • [14] Phillips, Melanie, op. cit.
  • [15] Ruthven, Malise, Fundamentalism: A Very Short Introduction, Published by Oxford University Press, New York 2004. See also: Ruthven, Malise, Islam: A Very Short Introduction, Published by Oxford University Press, New York 2012, and Ruthven, Malise, Encounters with Islam: On Religion, Politics and Modernity, Published by I. B. Tauris, New York 2012.
  • [16] This EU convention was adopted on January 27, 1977 and entered into force on August 4, 1978. It was amended by its Protocol of 15 May 15, 2003.
  • [17] Compare: Leaman, Islamic Philosophy. An Introduction, Published by Polity, London 2009; Leaman, Oliver, An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy, Published by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2001; Fakhry, Majid, A History of Islamic Philosophy, Published by Columbia University Press, New York 2004; Campanini, Massimo, An Introduction to Islamic Philosophy, Published by Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2008; Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Three Muslim Sages: Avicenna-Suhrawardi-Ibn Arabi, Published by Caravan Books, New York 1976; Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy (Suny Series in Islam), Published by State University of New York Press, New York 2006 and Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, A Young Muslim's Guide to the Modern World, Published by Kazi Publications, Inc., Chicago 1994.
  • [18] Farah, Douglas, Blood From Stones: The Secret Financial Network of Terror, Published by Broadway Books, New York 2004, pp. 20 and next.
  • [19] Phillips, Melanie, op. cit.
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