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Antibody - Biological warfare agents

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An antibody (Ab) also known as immunoglobulin (Ig) is a large Y-shape protein consisting of two heavy chains and two light chains (Figure 1) which form a functionally bivalent monomer that is produced by B cells receptor used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The widely used rapid detection systems exploit antibodies for recognition, identification and quantification of target analytes [68]. Abs played an important role in the advancement of diagnostic assays making it indispensable in diagnostic tests that are currently used routinely in clinics in classical immunological methods such as ELISA, dot blot immunobinding assays, electrochemiluminescence, flow cytometry and several microscopic techniques like fluorescence up to the construction of numerous immunosensors. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) usually exists as a pentamer in mammals, which predominates in primary immune responses to most antigens and is the most efficient complement fixing immunoglobulin and comprises approximately 10% of normal human serum Ig content. IgM is mainly produced by the immune system for protection against numerous viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections.
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