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2016 | 16 | 3 | 176–181
Article title

Udział stresu w etiopatogenezie i przebiegu schizofrenii

Title variants
The role of stress in etiopathogenesis and the course of schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia-like psychoses are one of the major problems in modern psychiatry. This is due not only to their high incidence in the general population, but it is also associated with the complexity of psychiatric and psychological problems, which make up the clinical picture of the diseases in this group. The mental state of people with schizophrenia results from the experienced hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, mood disorders, cognitive disorders and the impact of numerous stressors. These symptoms and disorders have a chronic adverse impact on the professional and family life of patients, which translates not only into significant deterioration in the patients’ quality of life, but also makes patients more susceptible to various psychosocial stressors. Chronic excessive stress is a phenomenon with a proven role in triggering the first episode of schizophrenia. In addition, stress has a negative impact on the course of the disease due to the increased risk of recurrence. An important task for psychiatrists and psychologists is to draw attention to the mechanisms of coping with stress available to the patient, because with them, patients will be able to deal more effectively with difficult situations.
Psychozy typu schizofrenii stanowią jeden z głównych problemów współczesnej psychiatrii. Wynika to z ich znacznego rozpowszechnienia w populacji ogólnej, ale również ze złożoności problemów psychiatryczno-psychologicznych, które składają się na obraz kliniczny schorzeń z tej grupy. Stan psychiczny osób chorych na schizofrenię jest wypadkową doświadczanych omamów, urojeń, objawów negatywnych, zaburzeń nastroju i zaburzeń funkcji poznawczych oraz działania rozmaitych stresorów. Wymienione objawy i zaburzenia wywierają przewlekły niekorzystny wpływ na funkcjonowanie zawodowe i rodzinne pacjentów, co nie tylko przekłada się na istotne pogorszenie jakości ich życia, lecz także eksponuje ich na rozmaite stresory psychospołeczne. Przewlekły nadmierny stres to zjawisko o potwierdzonej roli w wyzwalaniu pierwszego epizodu schizofrenii. Ponadto stres rzutuje na przebieg choroby –zwiększa ryzyko jej nawrotowości. Istotnym zadaniem lekarza psychiatry i psychologa jest zwrócenie uwagi na mechanizmy radzenia sobie ze stresem, jakimi dysponuje pacjent, gdyż dzięki nim będzie on w stanie skuteczniej radzić sobie w sytuacjach trudnych.

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