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2017 | 11 | 28-36
Article title

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Shigella and Salmonella Causing Diarrhoea in Children Below 5 Years at Thika Level Five District Hospital

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The aim of the study was to isolate and identify the extent of Salmonella and Shigella induced diarrhoea in children under five and to determine their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. The method of investigation was a cross-sectional study. Samples were collected from children less than five years old afflicted with diarrhoea coming for treatment at Thika Level Five Hospital, Kiambu County. A total of 80 stool samples were collected. These were specifically examined for Shigella and Salmonella. In doing so, the samples were cultured in MacConkey and Xylose lactose deoxycholate (XLD) agar. The plates were subsequently incubated aerobically at 37 °C overnight. After incubation, suspected Salmonella and Shigella colonies were identified morphologically, marked and the colonies inoculated to biochemical tests for species identification as described in the Medical Laboratory Manual. Following this, colonies derived from purity plating through biochemical testing were sub-cultured onto nutrient agar to obtain pure colonies. The obtained pure colonies were then used to perform susceptibility tests to commonly prescribed antibacterial drugs, including Gentamicin, Ciproflaxicin and Erythromycin. Results showed 10 (12.5%) confirmed positive isolates, where 6 (60%) were Salmonella and 4 (40%) Shigella. With respect to age, both isolates were found to be concentrated more at ages of 1-4 years. Herein, Salmonella – 1-2 years (33.33%), - 2-3years (50%); Shigella – 1-2 years (50%), - 2-3 years (25%). From the study, sex distribution (male or female) of the host isolates was equal (50-50%). Moreover, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin were the most potent antibiotics, whereas Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Cotrimoxazole and Sulfamethoxazole were highly resisted. According to study results, Quinolones and Aminogylcosides are the antibiotics of choice for severe diarrhoea illnesses caused by Salmonella and Shigella.
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  • Department of Medical Microbiology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Department of Medical Microbiology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Department of Medical Microbiology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115 Calabar, CRS, Nigeria
  • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115 Calabar, CRS, Nigeria
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