Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Shigella and Salmonella Causing Diarrhoea in Children Below 5 Years at Thika Level Five District Hospital
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The aim of the study was to isolate and identify Salmonella and Shigella causing diarrhoea in children under five and to determine their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. The method of investigation was a cross-sectional study. Samples were collected from children less than five years presenting with diarrhoea coming for treatment at Thika Level Five Hospital, Kiambu County. A total of 80 stool samples were collected from children presenting with diarrhoea and examined for Shigella and Salmonella. They were cultured in MacConkey and Xylose lactose deoxycholate (XLD) agar. The plates were incubated aerobically at 37 °C overnight, after incubation suspected Salmonella and Shigella colonies were identified morphologically, marked and the colonies inoculated to biochemical tests for species identification as described in Medical Laboratory Manual. Purity plating from biochemical tests were sub cultured onto the nutrient agar to obtain the pure colonies. Pure colonies obtained were then used to perform susceptibility tests to commonly prescribed antibacterial drugs including Gentamicin, Ciproflaxicin, and Erythromycin. Results showed 10 (12.5%) confirmed positive isolates where 6 (60%) were Salmonella and 4 (40%) Shigella. With respect to age, both isolates concentrated more at ages of 1-4 years. Salmonella 1-2 years (33.33%), 2-3years (50%). Shigella 1-2 years (50%), 2-3 years (25%). From the study, sex distribution of the isolates was equal on both male and female (50-50%). Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin were the most potent antibiotics whereas Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Cotrimoxazole and Sulfamethoxazole were highly resisted. Quinolones and Aminogylcosides are the antibiotics of choice for severe diarrhoea illnesses caused by Salmonella and Shigella.
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