Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 11 | 28-36
Article title

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Shigella and Salmonella Causing Diarrhoea in Children Below 5 Years at Thika Level Five District Hospital

Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of the study was to isolate and identify Salmonella and Shigella causing diarrhoea in children under five and to determine their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. The method of investigation was a cross-sectional study. Samples were collected from children less than five years presenting with diarrhoea coming for treatment at Thika Level Five Hospital, Kiambu County. A total of 80 stool samples were collected from children presenting with diarrhoea and examined for Shigella and Salmonella. They were cultured in MacConkey and Xylose lactose deoxycholate (XLD) agar. The plates were incubated aerobically at 37 °C overnight, after incubation suspected Salmonella and Shigella colonies were identified morphologically, marked and the colonies inoculated to biochemical tests for species identification as described in Medical Laboratory Manual. Purity plating from biochemical tests were sub cultured onto the nutrient agar to obtain the pure colonies. Pure colonies obtained were then used to perform susceptibility tests to commonly prescribed antibacterial drugs including Gentamicin, Ciproflaxicin, and Erythromycin. Results showed 10 (12.5%) confirmed positive isolates where 6 (60%) were Salmonella and 4 (40%) Shigella. With respect to age, both isolates concentrated more at ages of 1-4 years. Salmonella 1-2 years (33.33%), 2-3years (50%). Shigella 1-2 years (50%), 2-3 years (25%). From the study, sex distribution of the isolates was equal on both male and female (50-50%). Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin were the most potent antibiotics whereas Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Cotrimoxazole and Sulfamethoxazole were highly resisted. Quinolones and Aminogylcosides are the antibiotics of choice for severe diarrhoea illnesses caused by Salmonella and Shigella.
Physical description
  • W.H.O. 2009. Diarrhea: Why children are still dying and what can be done, Geneva
  • Fisher Walker C.I., Sack D., Black R.E., 2010. Etiology of Diarrhea in older children, adolescents and adults. Pg. 768.
  • W.H.O., 1999. Generic protocal to estimate the burden of Shigella diarrhoea and dysentric mortality. Pg. 22.
  • Gupta S., Ramp., Crump J.,., 2008. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries. Pg. 577-603.
  • Khan E., Jabeen K., Ejaz M., 2009).Trends in antimicrbiol. Resistance of Shigella species in Karachi Pakistan. Pg. 798-802.
  • Brands D., 2006. Salmonella. 1st ed., USA. Pg. 16-17.
  • Souza E., Martinez M., Taddei C., 2002. Etiological profile of acute diarrhea in children in Sao Paulo. Pg. 31-38.
  • Cleary T., 2008. The role of shiga-toxin producing E.coli in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatric infectious diseases. Pg. 260-265.
  • Georgopapadakou N., 2007. Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteria; Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials (2nd ed.), London NY. Pg. 343.
  • Dandekar T., Dander G., 2010. Pharmacogenomic strategies against microbial resistance. Pg 1193-1196.
  • Ndungu P.W., Okemo P.O and Kariuki S.M., 2004. MDR in E.coli, Salmonella and Shigella causing diarrhea in children below 5 years. Pg. 5-6.
  • Heseltine P., 2000. Has resistance spread to the community? Clinical microbiol. Infect., Pg. 11-16.
  • Cheesbrough M., 1992. Medical laboratory for tropical countries.15th ed. Britain Pg. 11.
  • Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI)., 2010. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility tests. 9th ed. Wayne, PA.I
  • Okeke I.N., Ojo. O., Laminkra.A, Kaper (2003). Etiology of acute diarrhea in adults in Southwestern Nigeria. Clin. Microbiol pp. 4525-4530
  • W.H.O., 1999. Generic protocal to estimate the burden of Shigella diarrhoea and dysentric mortality. Pg. 22
  • Navia M.M., Gaslin .J., Vila. J (2005). Analysis of the mechanisms of resistance to several antimicrobial agents in Shigella species causing traveller’s diarrhea. Clinical Microbiol infect pp. 1044-1047
  • Ribera A., Fernandez. F., Beceiro. A., Rodriquez J. B., Pachon J. (2004). Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams in Acinetobacter genospecies 1430-1432
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.