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Pasażowalne encefalopatie gąbczaste albo choroby wywołane przez priony – podsumowanie 2007

Title variants
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases – update 2007
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Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a widespread deposition in the central nervous system, and some other tissues, of the pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPd; “d” from disease). TSEs include: 1) kuru; 2) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the disease that occurs in four etiologically forms: • sporadic CJD (sCJD), • familial CJD (fCJD), • iatrogenic CJD (iCJD), • variant CJD (vCJD); 3) Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS); 4) fatal familial insomnia (FFI). There are also several TSEs in animals: – scrapie – in sheep, goats and moufflons; – bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and bovine atypical spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) or mad cow disease; – BSE passaged to: • domestic cats (feline spongiform encephalopathy, FSE) and large cats (lion, tiger, cheetah, ocelot and puma) • antelopes (kudu, nyala, oryx), bison; – chronic wasting disease in mule deer and elk; – transmissible mink encephalopathy in ranch-reared mink. Historically, the eponimic names are also included: atactic type of CJD or Betty Brownell syndrome, CJD with a cortical blindness (Heidenhain type) and the panencephalopathic type (Tateishi). The amyotrophic type is not TSE but motor neuron disease with dementi. In 1996, a new variant CJD (now only vCJD) was discovered as a result of a passage from BSE to humans.
Choroby wywołane przez priony (prion diseases) lub pasażowalne encefalopatie gąbczaste (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSE) to grupa chorób neurozwyrodnieniowych charakteryzująca się odkładaniem w ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym i w niektórych innych tkankach patologicznej izoformy białka prio-nu, PrPd (prion protein). U ludzi do grupy tej zalicza się: 1) kuru; 2) chorobę Creutzfeldta-Jakoba (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, CJD), która występuje w czterech postaciach: • sporadycznej CJD (sCJD), • rodzinnej CJD (fCJD, od familial), • jatrogennej CJD (jCJD), • wariancie CJD (vCJD); 3) chorobę Gerstmanna-Strausslera-Scheinkera (GSS); 4) śmiertelną rodzinną bezsenność (fatal familial insomnia, FFI). U zwierząt występuje kilka chorób niebędących przedmiotem niniejszego opracowania: - scrapie - u owiec, kóz i muflonów; - pasażowalna encefalopatia bydła (bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE) i atypowa BSE (bovine atypical spongiform encephalopathy, BASE) lub „choroba szalonych krów” (mad cow disease); - BSE przepasażowana na: • koty domowe (feline spongiform encephalopathy, FSE), lwa, tygrysa, geparda, ocelota i pumę, • egzotyczne gatunki antylop ( kudu, nyala, oryks), bizona; - przewlekła choroba wyniszczająca (chronic wasting disease, CWD) u małych jeleni i jelenia wapiti w USA; - pasażowalna encefalopatia norek. Historycznie w obrębie CJD wyróżnia się eponimiczne zespoły: ataktyczny (Betty Brownell), ze ślepotą korową (Heidenhaina) i panencefalopatyczny (Tateishi). Typ amiotroficzny jest to stwardnienie zanikowe boczne z otępieniem, aczkolwiek w przypadkach CJD o długim przebiegu zajęcie motoneuronu dolnego (amio-trofia) jest relatywnie częste. W 1996 roku wyróżniono tzw. nowy wariant CJD (nvCJD; obecnie wariant CJD, vCJD), będący wynikiem przepasażowania choroby szalonych krów (encefalopatii gąbczastej bydła, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE) na człowieka.
Physical description
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