Effects of Exercise on Risk-Taking
Languages of publication
Introduction: Research has shown that exercise increases levels of dopamine in cer tain sub - cortical brain regions. Increased dopamine activity in the brain has been linked to increased risk - taking. The purpose of this study was to determine if an increase in risk - taking is apparent in male athletes and non - athletes after strenuous exercise. Method: Ten athletes (age: 20.2±SD year) and ten non - athletes (age: 20.7±SD) in a university setting completed the BART (a validated protocol to asses risk - taking behavior) either after exercise or at r est. Result: Athletes obtained total 24.92 ± 10.99 pumps and Non - Athletes 42.76 ± 16.45 pumps . Discusion: AN C OVA’s showed that there was significant difference between athletes and non - athletes ( p< 0 .0 1) on the risk behavior test. Post hoc tests showed that for non - athletes there was also a significant difference for those that exercise immediately before the risk behavior test, p= 0 .003. This was not the case with athletes, p= 0 .683. Results indicate that while exercise increased risk - taking in the non - athlete subjects, it did not have an effect on the athlete population.
- Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016; 315(21): 2284-2291
- Ussher M, Sampuran A, Doshi R, West R, Drummond, D. Acute effect of a brief bout of exercise on alcohol urges. Addiction 2004, 99(12): 1542-47 DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00919.x
- Read JP, Brown, RA. The role of physical exercise in alcoholism treatment and recovery. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice 2003, 34: 49–56.
- Bernstein E, McNally R. Acute aerobic exercise helps overcome emotion regulation deficits. Cognition and Emotion. 2016, 0,0: 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2016.1168284
- Ensair I, Greenlee T, Motl R,Petruzzello S. Meta-analysis of Acute Exercise Effects on State Anxiety: An Update of Randomized Controlled Trials Over the Past 25 years. Depress Anxiety 2015, 32(8): 624-34. doi: 10.1002/da.22370
- Medina J, Vujanovic A, Smits J, Irons J, Zvolensky M. Exercise and Coping-Oriented Alcohol Use Among a Trauma-Exposed Sample. Addictive Behaviors 2011, 36(3): 274-77. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.008
- Taylor A, Ussher M, Faulkner G. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect and smoking behaviour: a systematic review. Addiction 2007, 102(4): 534-43. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01739.x
- Garza R, Yoon J, Thompson-Lake D, Haile C, Eisenhofer J, Newton T, Mahoney III J. Treadmill exercise improves fitness and reduces craving and use of cocaine in individuals with concurrent cocaine and tobacco-use disorder. Psychiatry Research 2016, 245: 133-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.08.003
- Arazi H, Mollazadeh R, Dadvand S, Davaran M. The circulatory levels of Serotonin and Dopamine and physical fitness factors in active and inactive men addicted to opium during rehabilitation. Physical Activity Review 2016, 4: 1-8.
- Crockett M, Fehr E. Social brains on drugs: tools for neuromodulation in social neuroscience. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience 2014, 9(2): 250–54 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst113
- Dishman R, O’Conner P. Lessons in exercise neurobiology: The case of endorphins. Mental Health and Physical Activity 2009, 2(1): 4-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2009.01.002
- Tozzi, T., Carballedo, A., Lavelle, G., Doolin, K., Doyle, M., Amico, F., McCarthy, H., Gormley, J., Lord A, O’Keane V, Frodl T. Longitudinal functional connectivity changes correlate with mood improvement after regular exercise in a dose-dependent fashion. European Journal of Neuroscience 2016, 43: 1089-1096. doi:10.1111/ejn.13222
- Black A, Hochman E, Rosen M. Acute Effects of Competitive Exercise on Risk-Taking in a Sample of Adolescent Male Athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2013, 25,175-179.
- Westborrk A, Braver T. Dopamine Does Double Duty in Motivating Cognitive Effort. Neuron 2016, 89(4): 695-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.029
- Weir K. The Exercise Effect. Monitor 2011, 42(11): 48
- Borg G. Borg’s Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales. Champaign, IL, US: Human Kinetics 1998
- Lejuez CW, Aklin WM, Daughters SB, Zvolensky MJ, Kahler CW, Gwadz M. Reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the assessment of risk-taking behavior among inner-city adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2007, 36, 106-111.
Publication order reference