New psychoactive substances in Poland: An overview of psychodysleptics (lysergamides and tryptamines)
Languages of publication
New psychoactive substances (NPS) sometimes referred to as “legal highs” or “designer drugs” are psychotropic materials that mimic the effects of other banned illicit drugs but are not always controlled under drug legislation. NPS are typically marketed as “not for human consumption” and are instead labelled and sold as research chemicals in Poland to avoid legislative controls. One of the main NPS classes are hallucinogens. The present paper aims at providing an overview of two groups of psychedelic drugs – lysergamides and tryptamines, and determining their legislation status in Poland. Psychodysleptics have always been of interest to people who want to experiment with their senses and boundaries. They may show beneficial effects which, from a medical point of view indicate the possibility of using them in therapies. NPS that have been described in this paper: 1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD), 6-Allyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD), 6-Ethyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD), 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-ethyltryptamine (4-HO-MET), 5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-DALT).
-  Johnson LA, Johnson RL, Portier RB. Current “legal highs”. J Emerg Med 44 (2013) 1108–15.
-  Hillebrand J, Olszewski D, Sedefov R. Legal highs on the Internet. Subst Use Misuse 45 (2010) 330–40.
-  Smith JP, Sutcliffe OB, Banks CE. An overview of recent developments in the analytical detection of new psychoactive substances (NPSs). Analyst 140(15) (2015) 4932-4948
-  Uyeno ET. Effects of Psychodysleptics on Aggressive Behavior of Animals. Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatry 13 (1978) 103-113
-  Marek GJ, Wright RA, Gewirtz JC, Schoepp DD. A major role for thalamocortical afferents in serotonergic hallucinogen receptor function in the rat neocortex. Neuroscience 105(2) (2001) 379-392.
-  Garcia-Romeu A, Kersgaard B, Addy PH. Clinical applications of hallucinogens: A review. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 24(4) (2016) 229-268
-  Haden M, Wood DM, Dargan PI. The impact of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 on the online availability of MDMB-CHMICA. QJM An Int J Med 110(10) (2017) 619-622
-  Wadsworth E, Drummond C, Deluca P. The adherence to UK legislation by online shops selling new psychoactive substances. Drugs Educ Prev Policy 25(1) (2018) 97-100
-  Lessin AW, Long RF, Parkes MW. Central stimulant actions of α-alkyl substituted tryptamines in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 24 (1965) 49–67
-  Holstege CP, Dobmeier SG, Bechtel LK. Critical Care Toxicology. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 26(3) (2008) 715-739
-  Araújo AM, Carvalho F, Bastos M de L, Guedes de Pinho P, Carvalho M. The hallucinogenic world of tryptamines: an updated review. Arch Toxicol 89(8) (2015) 1151–1173.
-  Yu A-M. Indolealkylamines: biotransformation and potential drug-drug interactions. AAPS J 10(2) (2008) 242–53.
-  Corkery JM, Durkin E, Elliott S, Schifano F, Ghodse AH. The recreational tryptamine 5-MeO-DALT (N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine): A brief review. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry 39(2) (2012) 259–62.
-  Hill SL, Thomas SHL. Clinical toxicology of newer recreational drugs. Clin Toxicol 49(8) (2011) 705–19.
-  Winstock AR, Kaar S, Borschmann R. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): Prevalence, user characteristics and abuse liability in a large global sample. J Psychopharmacol 28(1) (2014) 49–54.
-  McKenna DJ. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: Rationale and regulatory challenges. Pharmacol Ther 102(2) (2004) 111–29
-  Kjellgren A, Soussan C. Heaven and hell-a phenomenological study of recreational use of 4-HO-MET in Sweden. J Psychoactive Drugs 43(3) (2011) 211–9
-  Tittarelli R, Mannocchi G, Pantano F, Romolo F. Recreational Use, Analysis and Toxicity of Tryptamines. Curr Neuropharmacol 13(1) (2015) 26–46
-  Tupper KW, Wood E, Yensen R, Johnson MW. Psychedelic medicine: a re-emerging therapeutic paradigm. Can Med Assoc J 187(14) (2015) 1054-1059
-  Grob CS, Danforth AL, Chopra GS, et al. Pilot Study of Psilocybin Treatment for Anxiety in Patients With Advanced-Stage Cancer. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68(1) (2011) 71
-  Moreno FA, Wiegand CB, Taitano EK, Delgado PL. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of psilocybin in 9 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 67(11) (2006) 1735-1740
-  Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P. Chapter 2 Ergot Alkaloids – Biology and Molecular Biology. Alkaloids Chem Biol 63 (2006) 45-86.
-  Passie T, Halpern JH, Stichtenoth DO, Emrich HM, Hintzen A. The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review. CNS Neurosci Ther 14(4) (2008) 295-314
-  Aghajanian GK, Haigler HJ, Bloom FE. Lysergic acid diethylamide and serotonin: Direct actions on serotonin-containing neurons in rat brain. Life Sci 11(13) (1972) 615-622
-  Kraehenmann R, Pokorny D, Vollenweider L, et al. Dreamlike effects of LSD on waking imagery in humans depend on serotonin 2A receptor activation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 234(13) (2017) 2031-2046
-  Marona-Lewicka D, Thisted RA, Nichols DE. Distinct temporal phases in the behavioral pharmacology of LSD: dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat and implications for psychosis. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 180(3) (2005) 427-435
-  Gasser P, Holstein D, Michel Y, et al. Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. J Nerv Ment Dis 202(7) (2014) 513-520
-  Hoffer A. d-lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd): a review of its present status. Clin Pharmacol Ther 6 (1965) 183-255
-  Ungerleider T, Fisher D, Fuller M, Caldwell A. The ”Bad Trip": The Etiology of the Adverse LSD Reaction. Am J Psychiatry 124 (1968) 1483-1490
-  Oster G. Moiré patterns and visual hallucinations. Psychedelic Rev 7 (1966) 33–40.
-  Schmid Y, Enzler F, Gasser P, et al. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects. Biol Psychiatry 78(8) (2015) 544-553
-  Murray RM, Paparelli A, Morrison PD, Marconi A, Di Forti M. What can we learn about schizophrenia from studying the human model, drug-induced psychosis? Am J Med Genet Part B Neuropsychiatr Genet 162(7) (2013) 661-670
-  Brandt SD, King LA, Evans-Brown M. The new drug phenomenon. Drug Test Anal 6(7-8) (2014) 587-597
-  Schifano F, Papanti GD, Orsolini L, Corkery JM. Novel psychoactive substances: the pharmacology of stimulants and hallucinogens. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 9(7) (2016) 943-954
-  Coney LD, Maier LJ, Ferris JA, Winstock AR, Barratt MJ. Genie in a blotter: A comparative study of LSD and LSD analogues’ effects and user profile. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 32(3) (2017) 9-23
-  Lüscher C, Ungless MA. The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs. PLoS Med 3(11) (2006) e437
-  Brandt SD, Kavanagh P V., Westphal F, et al. Return of the lysergamides. Part III: Analytical characterization of N 6 -ethyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD) and 1-propionyl ETH-LAD (1P-ETH-LAD). Drug Test Anal 9(10) (2017) 1641-1649
-  Brandt SD, Kavanagh P V., Westphal F, et al. Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1-propionyl- d -lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD). Drug Test Anal 8(9) (2016) 891-902
-  Linda P, Stener A, Cipiciani A, Savelli G. Hydrolysis of amides. Kinetics and mechanism of the basic hydrolysis of N -acylpyrroles, N -acylindoles and N -acylcarbazoles. J Heterocycl Chem 20(1) (1983) 247-248
-  Schifano F, Orsolini L, Papanti D, Corkery J. NPS: Medical Consequences Associated with Their Intake. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 32 (2017) 351-380
-  Hoffman AJ, Nichols DE. Synthesis and LSD-like discriminative stimulus properties in a series of N(6)-alkyl norlysergic acid N,N-diethylamide derivatives. J Med Chem 28(9) (1985) 1252-1255
-  Brandt SD, Kavanagh P V., Westphal F, et al. Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N 6 -allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2’ S ,4’ S )-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ). Drug Test Anal 9(1) (2016) 38-50
-  Watts VJ, Lawler CP, Fox DR, Neve KA, Nichols DE, Mailman RB. LSD and structural analogs: pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 118(4) (1995) 401-409
-  Halberstadt AL, Geyer MA. Characterization of the head-twitch response induced by hallucinogens in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 227(4) (2013) 727-739
-  Krebs TS, Johansen P-Ø. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol 26(7) (2012) 994-1002.
-  Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG, et al. Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. Neurology 66(12) (2006) 1920-1922.
-  Carhart-Harris RL, Kaelen M, Whalley MG, Bolstridge M, Feilding A, Nutt DJ. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 232(4) (2015) 785-794
-  Kirsch I, Low CB. Suggestion in the Treatment of Depression. Am J Clin Hypn 55(3) (2013) 221-229
Publication order reference