FASD – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder
Languages of publication
Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is a highly undesirable phenomenon, often causing miscarriages or many abnormalities of the child's development. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) describes physical and mental disorders resulting from the effects of alcohol on health and behavioral disorders of the child, which are usually secondary to changes in the central nervous system caused by fetal alcohol intoxication during pregnancy. These changes are usually irreversible and evident throughout the life of a child affected by FASD, but if appropriate therapies are implemented, it is possible to minimize the symptoms of these disorders. Their nature and severity depend on several factors, including the time of exposure to alcohol and the health status of a pregnant woman. Clinical features of FASD include craniofacial anomalies, central nervous system disorders and growth retardation. Alcohol-induced structural changes include anomalies in the cardiovascular, skeletal, renal and urinary systems as well as in the organs of sight and hearing. Time of initial diagnosis plays an important role, because it allows the introduction of appropriate therapy for a child with FASD and the introduction of appropriate education of parents and other members of the family. It is possible to minimize the symptoms and disorders resulting from the Fetal Alcohol Disorders Spectrum, to the extent enabling them proper functioning of the child and his family.
-  Bertrand J., Floyd R., Weber M., et al. National Task Force on Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effect. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Guidelines for referral and diagnosis. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 2004
-  Hagan J., Balachova T., Bertrand J., et al. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Pediatrics 2016; 138(4).
-  Hoyme H., Coles C., Alcohol-Related Neurobehavioral Disabilities: Need for Further Definition and Common Terminology. Pediatrics 2016; 138(4).
-  American Psychiatric Association. Neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2013, p. 798
-  Riley E., Infante M., Warren K.. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview. Neuropsychol Rev 2011; 21: 73
-  McGee C., Riley E.. Brain imaging and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2006; 42: 46
-  Sokol R., Delaney-Black V., Nordstrom B. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. JAMA 2003; 290: 2996
-  Muggli E, Matthews H, Penington A, et al. Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Craniofacial Shape of Children at 12 Months of Age. JAMA Pediatr 2017; 171: 771
-  Feldman H., Jones K., Lindsay S., et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure patterns and alcohol-related birth defects and growth deficiencies: a prospective study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2012; 36: 670
-  O'Leary C., Nassar N., Kurinczuk J., et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure and risk of birth defects. Pediatrics 2010; 126: e843
-  Jacobson S., Jacobson J., Sokol R., et al. Maternal age, alcohol abuse history, and quality of parenting as moderators of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on 7.5-year intellectual function. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004; 28: 1732
-  May P., Gossage J. Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome. A summary. Alcohol Res Health 2001; 25: 159
-  Fast D., Conry J., Loock C. Identifying fetal alcohol syndrome among youth in the criminal justice system. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1999; 20: 370
-  Astley S, Grant T. Another perspective on the effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid-pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012; 119: 1672
-  Streissguth A., Aase J., Clarren S., et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome in adolescents and adults. JAMA 1991; 265: 1961
-  Burd L, Deal E, Rios R, et al. Congenital heart defects and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Congenit Heart Dis 2007; 2: 250
-  Mattson S., Roesch S., Glass L., et al. Further development of a neurobehavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013; 37: 517
-  Mattson S., Roesch S., Fagerlund A., et al. Toward a neurobehavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34: 1640
-  Lucas B., Latimer J., Pinto R., et al. Gross motor deficits in children prenatally exposed to alcohol: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2014; 134: e192
-  Carr J., Agnihotri S., Keightley M. Sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits of children across the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34: 1022
-  Carter R., Jacobson J., Molteno C., et al. Fetal Alcohol Growth Restriction and Cognitive Impairment. Pediatrics 2016; 138
-  Peadon E., Elliott E. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2010; 6: 509
-  Jadczak-Szumiło T., Diagnostic problems in children with FASD - implications of the diagnosis. A summary of 15 years of studies on Polish children with FASD, XIIth Conferrence on Educational Diagnostics, Bydgoszcz, Poland, 2015.
Publication order reference