Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2018 | 18 | 3 | 276–282
Article title

Commentary on: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale: psychometric properties ofthe Italian version. A pilot study. Theoretical and methodological issues in the research on study addiction with relevance to the debate on conceptualising behavioural addictions

Title variants
Komentarz redakcyjny do pracy: Skala Uzależnienia od Uczenia się Bergen: cechy psychometryczne wersji włoskojęzycznej. Badanie pilotażowe. Teoretyczne i metodologiczne zagadnienia dotyczące badania uzależnienia od uczenia się w kontekście debaty na temat konceptualizacji uzależnień behawioralnych
Languages of publication
The paper by Loscalzo and Giannini titled “The Bergen Study Addiction Scale: psychometric properties of the Italian version. A pilot study” published in the current issue of “Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna” (Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology) concerns the results of the study on an Italian validation of Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) (Atroszko, 2015; Atroszko et al., 2015).
Physical description
  • Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
  • Achenbach TM: The classification of children’s psychiatric symptoms: a factor-analytic study. Psychol Monogr 1966; 80: 1–37.
  • Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Rescorla LA et al.: Internalizing/externalizing problems: review and recommendations for clinical and research applications. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2016; 55: 647–656.
  • American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth edition. DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA 2013.
  • Andreassen CS: Workaholism: an overview and current status of the research. J Behav Addict 2014; 3: 1–11.
  • Andreassen CS, Pallesen S: Workaholism: an addiction to work. In Preedy VR (ed.): Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse. Volume 3: General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions. Academic Press, London, UK 2016: 972–983.
  • Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD, Gjertsen SR et al.: The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality. J Behav Addict 2013; 2: 90–99.
  • Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD, Hetland J et al.: Development of a work addiction scale. Scand J Psychol 2012; 53: 265–272.
  • Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD, Sinha R et al.: The relationships between workaholism and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: a largescale cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0152978.
  • Atroszko B, Atroszko P: Sytuacja materialna studentów, zaangażowanie i samoskuteczność w zakresie nauki a kompulsja uczenia się. Przegląd Pedagogiczny 2013; (2): 45–53. Available from:
  • Atroszko P: Relationship between financial resources and home environment and student’s learning-related attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Ad Alta: J Interdiscipl Res 2013a; 3: 7–10. Available from: http://www.
  • Atroszko P: Uzależnienie od pracy – wynik „słabej woli” czy potrzeby doskonałości? Stud Psychologica 2010; 10: 179–201.
  • Atroszko PA: Research on behavioural addictions: work addiction. In: Baranowska-Szczepańska M, Gołaszewski M (eds.): Modern Research Trends of Young Scientists: Current Status, Problems and Prospects. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Handlu i Usług, Poznań 2012: 11–24.
  • Atroszko PA: The Structure of Study Addiction: Selected Risk Factors and the Relationship with Stress, Stress Coping and Psychosocial Functioning. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 2015.
  • Atroszko PA: Zachowania i postawy studentów związane z uczeniem się a determinanty rozwoju gospodarki opartej na wiedzy. In: Osiński J, Pachocka M (eds.): Zmieniający się świat. Perspektywa demograficzna, społeczna i gospodarcza. Oficyna Wydawnicza Szkoły Głównej Handlowej, Warszawa 2013b: 185–197.
  • Atroszko PA, Griffiths MD: Work addiction is not new to the psychological literature and has evolved over time. Glob J Add Rehab Med 2017; 3: 555612.
  • Atroszko PA, Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD et al.: Study addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study examining temporal stability and predictors of its changes. J Behav Addict 2016a; 5: 357–362.
  • Atroszko PA, Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD et al.: Study addiction – a new area of psychological study: conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings. J Behav Addict 2015; 4: 75–84.
  • Atroszko PA, Andreassen CS, Griffiths MD et al.: The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study. J Behav Addict 2016b; 5: 708–714.
  • Atroszko PA, Balcerowska JM, Bereznowski P et al.: Facebook addiction among Polish undergraduate students: validity of measurement and relationship with personality and well-being. Comput Human Behav 2018; 85: 329–338.
  • Atroszko PA, Pallesen S, Griffiths MD et al.: Work addiction in Poland: adaptation of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale and relationship with psychopathology. J Health Psychol 2017; 5: 345–355.
  • Baker A: Simplicity. In: Zalta EN (ed.): The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2004. Bauer HH: Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, IL 1994.
  • Billieux J, Schimmenti A, Khazaal Y et al.: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. J Behav Addict 2015; 4: 119–123.
  • Blaszczynski A, Collins P, Fong D et al.: Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements. J Gambl Stud 2011; 27: 565–573.
  • Bollen KA: Structural Equations with Latent Variables. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY 1989.
  • Burke RJ, Fiksenbaum L: Work hours, work intensity, and work addiction: costs and benefits. In: Burke RJ, Cooper CL (eds.): The Long Work Hours Culture: Causes, Consequences and Choices. Emerald, Bingley, UK: 2008: 3–36.
  • Charlton BG: Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense. Med Hypotheses 2009; 73: 867–870.
  • Charlton BG: Not Even Trying: The Corruption of Real Science. University of Buckingham Press, Buckingham, UK 2012.
  • Crombie AC: Medieval and Early Modern Science, Vol. 2: Science in the Later Middle Ages and Early Modern Times, XIII–XVII Centuries. Doubleday Anchor Books, Garden City, NY 1959: 30.
  • Diedrich A, Voderholzer U: Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder: a current review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2015; 17: 2.
  • Dutton E, van der Linden D: Who are the “Clever Sillies”? The intelligence, personality, and motives of clever silly originators and those who follow them. Intelligence 2015; 49: 57–65.
  • European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: Calculating the cost of work-related stress and psychosocial risks. European Risk Observatory. Literature Review. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 2014.
  • Fassel D: Working Ourselves To Death: The High Cost of Workaholism and the Rewards of Recovery. Harper, San Francisco, CA 1990.
  • Ferenczi S: II. Sonntagsneurosen. Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse 1919; 5: 46–48.
  • Fleck L: Crisis in science. In: Cohen RS, Schnelle T (eds.): Cognition and Fact. Materials on Ludwik Fleck. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 87. Springer, Dordrecht 1986: 153–158.
  • Gerstein D, Murphy S, Toce M et al.: Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. National Opinion Research Center, Chicago 1999.
  • Grant JE, Potenza MN, Weinstein A et al.: Introduction to behavioral addictions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2010; 36: 233–241.
  • Griffiths M: A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. J Subst Use 2005; 10: 191–197.
  • Griffiths MD: Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their similarities not their dissimilarities. Addiction 2017; 112: 1718–1720.
  • Griffiths MD, Demetrovics, Atroszko PA: Ten myths about work addiction. J Behav Addict 2018: 1–13.
  • Henson RK, Roberts JK: Use of exploratory factor analysis in published research: common errors and some comment on improved practice. Educ Psychol Meas 2006; 66: 393–416.
  • Jacobs DF: A general theory of addictions: a new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior 1986; 2: 15–31.
  • Kardefelt-Winther D, Heeren A, Schimmenti A et al.: How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours? Addiction 2017; 112: 1709–1715.
  • Kendler KS, Prescott CA, Myers J et al.: The strucvture of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 929–937.
  • King SM, Iacono WG, McGue M: Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of early substance use. Addiction 2004; 99: 1548–1559.
  • Koob GF, Volkow ND: Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35: 217–238.
  • Krueger RF, Markon KE: Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2006; 2: 111–133.
  • Krueger RF, Markon KE, Patrick CJ et al.: Externalizing psychopathology in adulthood: a dimensional-spectrum conceptualization and its implications for DSM-V. J Abnorm Psychol 2005; 114: 537–550.
  • Levy N: Addiction is not a brain disease (and it matters). Front Psychiatry 2013; 4: 24.
  • Lewis M: Addiction and the brain: development, not disease. Neuroethics 2017; 10: 7–18.
  • Loscalzo Y, Giannini M: Clinical conceptualization of workaholism: a comprehensive model. Organizational Psychology Review 2017; 7: 306–329.
  • Loscalzo Y, Giannini M: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale: psychometric properties of the Italian version. A pilot study. Psychiatr Psychol Klin 2018; 18: 271–275.
  • Madison G, Dutton E, Stern C: Intelligence, competitive altruism, and “clever silliness” may underlie bias in academe. Behav Brain Sci 2017; 40: e9.
  • Makel MC, Plucker JA: Facts are more important than novelty: replication in the education sciences. Educ Res 2014; 43: 304–316.
  • Maraz A, Király O, Demetrovics Z: Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. The diagnostic pitfalls of surveys: if you score positive on a test of addiction, you still have a good chance not to be addicted. J Behav Addict 2015; 4: 151–154.
  • Marmet S, Studer J, Rougemont-Bücking A et al.: Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men. Eur Psychiatry 2018; 52: 76–84.
  • Maughan DR, Christiansen E, Jenson WR et al.: Behavioral parent training as a treatment for externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders: a meta-analysis. School Psych Rev 2005; 34: 267–286.
  • Nosek BA, Spies JR, Motyl M: Scientific utopia: II. Restructuring incentives and practices to promote truth over publishability. Perspect Psychol Sci 2012; 7: 615–631.
  • Oates WE: Confession of a Workaholic: The Facts about Work Addiction. World Publishing, New York 1971.
  • Orosz G, Dombi E, Andreassen CS et al.: Analyzing models of work addiction: single factor and bi-factor models of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Int J Ment Health Addict 2016; 14: 662–671.
  • Paluchowski WJ, Hornowska E: Pracoholizm a system wartości i uwarunkowania temperamentalne. In: Witkowski SA (ed.): Psychologiczne wyznaczniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu. Tom VI. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2003: 295–319.
  • Popper K: The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Routledge, London 1992.
  • Popper KR: The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality. Routledge, 1994.
  • Robbins TW, Gillan CM, Smith DG et al.: Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci 2012; 16: 81–91.
  • Robins E, Guze SB: Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: Its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1970; 126: 983–987.
  • Robinson BE: Workaholism: bridging the gap between workplace, sociocultural, and family research. J Employ Couns 2000; 37: 31–47.
  • Satel S, Lilienfeld SO: Addiction and the brain-disease fallacy. Front Psychiatry 2014; 4: 141.
  • Schmitt TA: Current methodological considerations in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. J Psychoeduc Assess 2011; 29: 304–321.
  • Shaffer HJ, LaPlante DA, LaBrie RA et al.: Toward a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2004; 12: 367–374.
  • Shiffman S: Coping and Substance Use. Academic Press, London 1985.
  • Sinha R: Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1141: 105–130.
  • Thompson B, Daniel LG: Factor analytic evidence for the construct validity of scores: a historical overview and some guidelines. Educ Psychol Meas 1996; 56: 197–208.
  • Wagenmakers EJ, Wetzels R, Borsboom D et al.: Why psychologists must change the way they analyze their data: The case of psi: Comment on Bem (2011). J Pers Soc Psychol 2011; 100: 426–432.
  • Woodley MA: Are high-IQ individuals deficient in common sense? A critical examination of the ‘clever sillies’ hypothesis. Intelligence 2010; 38: 471–480.
  • Ziman J: Real Science: What It Is and What It Means. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 2002.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.