Problem identification: The desire for motherhood is one of the top priorities for most female young cancer survivors. The risk of infertility after cancer therapy is an important concern with several physical and emotional consequences. This comprehensive literature review aims to summarize and contextualize recent research that has been carried out on female fertility after cancer, suggesting future research and clinical directions. Literature search: Searches included the keywords “cancer”, “female”, “adults”, and “fertility”. Studies were selected if focused on infertility issues in female cancer survivors. Data synthesis: Eight themes were identified: the effects of anticancer treatments on fertility; fertility preservation methods; international recommendations regarding infertility risk; health professionals’ attitudes towards fertility preservation; patient’s concerns regarding the risk of infertility; patients' information needs; and the impact of the risk of infertility in patient’s quality of life. Conclusions: Psycho-oncologists should be integrated in the oncofertility teams to assess patients’ needs before cancer treatment initiation.