PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2015 | 19 | 16-31
Article title

ISIS has turned the Middle East Hydro-Politics upside down

Authors
Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The “Arab Spring”—a wave of pro-democracy demonstrations that began in Tunisia in late 2010 and swept across Libya and Egypt—finally reached Syria in early March 2011. The unrest resulted from a combination of socio-economic and political problems that had been building for years and that affect especially Syria’s large rural population. One of the things that preceded the failure of the nation-state of Syria and the rise of ISIS have been considered the effect of climate change and the mega-drought that affected that region. However, four years after the conflict began, it has degenerated into a civil war with more than 200,000 deaths and about 4 million registered refugees. And it has put Syria at the center of nasty geopolitical struggles. In most evaluations of the Syrian civil war an future, the most neglected analysis is: How water resources will affect the ongoing civil war and how changing situation will affect hydropolitics relations between countries after the war. A far more sustained and thoughtful consideration of Syria’s future, and how the country will be governed democratically, is needed. There are at least seven scenarios for the future of the country from Assad victory to, stalemate, country breaks up, regional conflict, chaos etc. In details, autonomy in some regions, confederal, federal, independent all or a bicameral parliament and highly decentralized provincial structures, whatsoever the type of New Syrian system will be, there will be transboundary water issues that are more conflicted and somehow different than it was before. ISIS has been the most important and powerful actor in the civil war. It has played a very important role to change the region till now. If current political system of the Syria is changed or fragmented after the civil war that is likely to be, we can easily say that ISIS has turned the “Middle East Hydro Politics” upside down. Even if it is not well known right now, this change will affect future of the regional stability with climate change effects in near future.
Year
Volume
19
Pages
16-31
Physical description
Contributors
  • Hydropolitics Academy Association, Ankara, Turkey
References
  • [1] Josepha Ivanka Wessels (2015) Challenging hydro-hegemony: hydro-politics and local resistance in the Golan Heights and the Palestinian territories, International Journal of Environmental Studies, 72:4, 601-623, DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2015.1041836
  • [2] Wessels, J., 2009, Water crisis in the Middle East: An opportunity for new forms of water governance and peace. Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, USA, 10(2), 131-141
  • [3] Zeitoun, M. and Warner, J., 2006, Hydro-hegemony – a framework for analysis of trans-boundary water conflicts. Water Policy, 8, 435–460.10.2166/wp.2006.054
  • [4] Zeitoun, M. and Mirumachi, N. 2008, Transboundary water interaction I: Reconsidering conflict and cooperation. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 2008(4), 297–316.10.1007/s10784-008-9083-5
  • [5] Murphy, R. and Gannon, D., 2008, Changing the landscape: Israel’s gross violations of international law in the occupied Syrian Golan. Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 11, 139–174.10.1017/S1389135908001396
  • [6] Cooley, J.K., 1984, The War over Water. Foreign Policy, 54, 3–26.10.2307/1148352
  • [7] Okbazghi Yohannes (2009) Hydro-politics in the Nile basin: in search of theory beyond realism and neo-liberalism, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 3:1, 74-93, DOI: 10.1080/17531050802682788
  • [8] Amer, Salah, Yacob Arsano, Atta el-Battahani, Osman El-Tom Hamad, Magdy Abd El-Moenim Hefay, Imeru Tamrat and Simon A. Mason. Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin. Aquatic Sciences 67 , no. 1 March 2005: 3-14
  • [9] Benvenisti, Byal. Collective Action in the Utilization of Shared Fresh Water: The Challenge of International Water Resources Law. The American Journal of International Law 90, no. 3 July 1996: 388-415
  • [10] Arsano, Yacob, and Imeru Tamrat. Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin: Riparian Perspectives of International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin. Aquatic Sciences 67, no. 1 March 2005: 15-27
  • [11] Falkenmark, Malin. Global Water Issues Confronting Humanity. Journal of Peace Research 27, no. 2 May 1990: 177 -190
  • [12] Hulme, Mike. The Changing Rainfall Resources of Sudan. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, 15, no. 1 1990: 21-34
  • [13] Kagwanja, Peter. Calming the Waters: The East African Community and Conflict over the Nile Resources. Journal of East African Studies 1, no. 3 November 2007: 321-337
  • [14] Suvarna, Shrevani. 2006. Development Aid in an Environmental Context: Using Microfinance to Promote Equitable and Sustainable Water Use in the Nile Basin. Environmental Affairs Law Review, 33(2): 449-84
  • [15] Shlomi Dinar (2012) The Geographical Dimensions of Hydro-politics: International Freshwater in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 53: 1, 115-142, DOI: 10.2747/1539-7216.53.1.115
  • [16] Brochmann, Marit and Paul Hensel. The Effectiveness of Negotiations over International River Claims. International Studies Quarterly, 55, 3:859-882, 2011.
  • [17] Brunnee, J. and S. J. Toope. The Changing Nile Basin Regime: Does Law Matter? Harvard International Law Journal, 43, 122-131, 2002
  • [18] Gleick, Peter. Water and Conflict. International Security, 18, 1:79-112, 1993
  • [19] Lowi, Miriam. Rivers of Conflict, Rivers of Peace. Journal of International Affairs 49, 1:123-144, 1995
  • [20] Spykman, Nicholas. Geography and Foreign Policy I. The American Political Science Review, 32, 1:28-50, 1938
  • [21] Spykman, Nicholas and Abbie A. Rollins. Geographic Objectives in Foreign Policy II. The American Political Science Review, 33, 4:591-614, 1939.
  • [22] Zeitoun, Mark and Jeroen Warner, Hydro-hegemony—a Framework for Analysis of Transboundary Water Conflicts, Water Policy, 8, 5:435-460, 2006
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-4a30e57f-5d7d-462b-9a1e-7b7fe17e6c87
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.