Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2021 | 160 | 203-216

Article title

The effect of induction of bacteria Bacillus subtilis in feed on the immune system of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758)


Title variants

Languages of publication



The induction of bacteria Bacillus subtilis into carp feed to improve the immune system has been widely carried out, but no one has discussed the blood picture and the resulting gene expression. This study aims to determine the effect of the induction of bacteria Bacillus subtilis on carp feed to improve the immune system. The method used is the exploration method with 3 treatments, namely Treatment A (addition of bacteria Bacillus subtilis 10 ml/kg feed with a density of 108 CFU/mL), Treatment B (addition of Bacillus subtilis bacteria 20 ml/kg feed with a density of 108 CFU/mL), and Treatment C (Control). After rearing fish for 14 days, gene expression analysis was performed. RNA taken from the kidneys and liver of carp was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. RNA isolates were amplified using the semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Observation parameters in the form of fish hematology consisting of total white blood cells and total red blood cells, as well as water quality. The results showed that the highest increase in gene expression was in treatment A, namely, liver samples (AH) of 19.76% and kidney samples (AG) of 16.04% which was in line with an increase in white blood cells by 29% and an increase in red blood cells by 21%.






Physical description


  • Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung – Sumedang KM. 21 Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
  • Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung – Sumedang KM. 21 Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
  • Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung – Sumedang KM. 21 Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
  • Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung – Sumedang KM. 21 Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia


  • [1] Zhao. S, Chen. Z, Zheng. J, Dai. J, Ou. W, Xu. W, Ai. Q, Zhang. W, Niu. J, Mai. K, Zhang. Y, Citric acid mitigates soybean meal induced inflammatory response and tight junction disruption by altering TLR signal transduction in the intestine of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. Journal Fish and Selfish Immonology 92 (2019) 181-187
  • [2] Kot, K., Kosik-Bogacka, D., Wojtkowiak-Giera, A. et al. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the kidneys and heart of mice infected with Acanthamoeba spp.. Parasites Vectors 13, 480 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04351-4
  • [3] Yauch. L, Michael. K, Mansour. Shmuel, S. James, B. Rottman, and Stuart M, Involvement of CD14, Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the Host Response to the Fungal Patogen Cryptococcus neoformans In vivo. Infection and Immunity 72 (9) (2004) 5373-5382
  • [4] Mohapatra. S, T. Chakraborty, V. Kumar, G. DeBoeck, KN. Mohanta, Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97 (2013) 405–430
  • [5] Dammermann. W, Wollenberg. L, Bentzien. F, Lohse. A, Luth. S, Toll Like Receptor 2 Agonists Lipoteichoic Acid and Peptidoglycan are Able to Enhance Antigen Specific If Release in Whole Blood During Recall Antigen Responses. Journal of Immunological Methods 396 (1-2) (2013) 107-115
  • [6] Mulyani. Y, Aryantha. INP, Suhandono. S, Pancoro. A, Intestinal Bacteria of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) as a Biological Control Agent for Aeromonas. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 12 (2) (2018) 601-610
  • [7] Ribeiro CM, Hermsen T, Taverne-Thiele AJ, Savelkoul HF, Wiegertjes GF, Evolution of recognition of ligands from Gram-positive bacteria: similarities and differences in the TLR2-mediated response between mammalian vertebrates and teleost fish. J Immunol 5 (184) (2010) 2355-2368
  • [8] Aly S. M, AG Ahmed, AA Ghareeb, MF Mohamed, Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25 (1-2) (2008) 128-136.
  • [9] Nayak. SK, Probiotics and Immunity: A Fish Perspective [review]. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 29 (2010) 2-14
  • [10] Ellis. A. E, Innate Host Defense Mechanism of Fish Against Viruses and Bacteria. J Developmental and Comparative Immunology 25 (2001) 827-839
  • [11] Lukistyowati. I, Kurniasih, Survival of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) fed garlic extract (Allium sativum) and infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Affairs 16 (1) (2011) 144-160
  • [12] Hardi. E, Handayani, Sukenda, E. Harris, AM Lusiastuti, Characteristics and Pathogenicity Streptococcus agalactiae of -Hemolytic and Non-Hemolyticin Tilapia. Veterinary Journal 12 (2) (2011) 152-164
  • [13] Rotondo. F, Manoranjan. B, Salehi. F, Scheithauer. B, W. Kovacs, K. Cusimano. M. D, Estrogen receptors α and β immunohistochemical expression: Clinicopathological correlations in pituitary adenomas. Anticancer Research 30 (7) (2010) 2897-2904
  • [14] Kumar. M. P, Ramulu. KS, Haematological changes in Pangasius hypophthalmus infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. International Journal of Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Sciences 3 (1) (2013) 70–75
  • [15] Mocanu. M, V. Cristea. L, Dediu, E. Bocioc, RI Grecu, S. Ion, I. Vasilean, The Effect of Probiotic Diet on Growth and Hematology Parameters of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum 1792). Lucrari Stiintifice Sera Zootheniie 59 (2010) 258–263
  • [16] Morihito. S, Hitomi. S, Daisuke. I, Kazumi. K, Masanori. K, Hiroki. T, Toru. T, Hitoshi. I, Yasufumi. A, Yoshiro. K, Direct binding of Toll-Like Receptors 2 to Zymosan and TNF α Secretion Are Down-Regulated by Lung Collectin Surfactan Protein A. The Journal of Immunology 171 (2003) 417-425
  • [17] Tang. R, Wang. S, Han. P, Zhang. Q, Zhang. S, Xing. X, Shao. R, Xu. W, Xu. Q, Wei. Q, Qi. Z, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR13 from the endangered primitive-ray finned fish Dabry’s sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and their expression profiling upon immune stimulation. Aquaculture Reports 16 (2020) 1-10
  • [18] Wedemeyer Sartijo, R. S. A. Harjuno, C. Haditomo, Effect of Soaking Ceremai Leaf Extract (Phyllanthus acidus [L] skeels) on Total Erythrocytes and Lifespan of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria. Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology 7 (1) (2018) 114-119
  • [19] Fink IR, Pietretti D, Voogdt CGP, Westphal AH, Savelkoul HFJ, Forlenza M, Wiegertjes GF, Molecular and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor (Tlr)1 and Tlr2 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Shellfish Immunol 56 (2016) 70-83
  • [20] Shoemaker CA, Klesius PH, Evans JJ, Prevalence of Streptococcus iniae in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, and channel catfish on commercial fish farms in the United States. Am J Vet Res 2 (62) (2001) 174-177
  • [21] Lee S. Toni, Anastacia M. Garcia, Danielle A. Jeffrey, Xuan Jiang, Brian L. Stauffer, Shelley D. Miyamoto, Carmen C. Sucharov. Optimization of phenol-chloroform RNA extraction. MethodsX 5 (2018) 599-608
  • [22] Tesena. P, Korchunjit. W, Taylor. J, Wongtawan. T, Comparison of commercial RNA extraction kits and qPCR master mixes for studying gene expression in small biopsy tissue samples from the equine gastric epithelium. J Equine Sci 28 (2017) 135-141
  • [23] Lebeer. S, Vanderleyden. J, Keersmaecker. SCJD, Genes and Molecules og Lactobacilli Suporting Probiotic Action. Microbiology and Moleculer Biology Review 4 (72) (2008) 728-764
  • [24] Chang-Sheng Zhao, Di-An Fang, Dong-Po Xu, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) exposure in the river pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus): Evidences for its toxic injury function. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 99 (2020) 526-534
  • [25] Hwang GL, Azizur Rahman M, Abdul Razak S, Sohm F, Farahmand H, Smith A, Brooks C, Maclean N, Isolation and characterisation of tilapia beta-actin promoter and comparison of its activity with carp beta-actin promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta 1625 (1) (2003) 11-18
  • [26] Miettinen. M, Veckman. V, Latvala. S, Sereneva. T, Matikainen. S, Julkunen. I, Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus pyogenes Differentially Regulate Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Genes Expression nn Human Primary Macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 84 (2008) 1092-1100
  • [27] Alexander. C, Rietschel. E.T, Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides and Innate Immunity. Journal of Endotoxin Research 3 (7) (2001) 167-2004
  • [28] Galdeano. CM, Perdigon. G, The Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus casei Induces Activation of the Gut Mucosal Immune System Through Innate Immunity. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2 (13) (2006) 219-226.
  • [29] Sumaraw. JT, H. Manoppo, RA Tumbol, IFM Rumengan, HA Dien, DA Sumilat, Study of Probiotic Bacteria to Improve Growth Performance and Survival of Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Platax Scientific Journal 7 (1) (2019) 243-255
  • [30] Nikoskelane. S, Ouwehand. A, Salminen. S, Bylund. G, Protection of Rainbow Trout Onchorhyncus mykiss from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Aquaculture 198 (2001) 229-236
  • [31] Alejo A, Tafalla C, Chemokines in teleost fish species. Dev Comp Immunol 12 (35) (2011) 1215-1222
  • [32] Woitke. M, H. Junge, W. H. Schnitzler, Bacillus subtilis as Growth Promotor in Hydroponically Grown Tomatoes Uunder Saline Conditions. Acta Hort 48 (659) (2004) 363-369
  • [33] Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina Suryadi, Regan Hanifelian Yusa, Grandiosa H. Roffi, Zahidah, The performance of Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a circular current container tested against the Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria. World Scientific News 159 (2021) 1-19
  • [34] Ayi Yustiati, Sadra Muhammad Haydar Ali Saefulhadjar, Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina Suryadi, Iskandar, Hematological Performance and Survival of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) Strain Majalaya Fingerlings Against Temperature Stress. World Scientific News 150 (2020) 92-104
  • [35] Raden Ahmad Sholahudin Fauzi, Ayi Yustiati, Eddy Afrianto, Ibnu Bangkit, Growth and sustainability performance of common carp seed (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in round water flowing container. World Scientific News 141 (2020) 132-144
  • [36] Zulfahana Amatulloh, Yuniar Mulyani, Lantun Paradhita Dewanti, Kiki Haetami, Growth Characteristics and Tracing Antagonistic Properties of Bacillus flexus and Bacillus subtilis as Antibacterials to Overcome the Attack of Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria on Fish. World Scientific News 158 (2021) 91-104
  • [37] Rosidah, Maria Dewi Yunita, Isni Nurruhwati, Achmad Rizal, Histopathological changes in gold fish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria with various densities. World Scientific News 142 (2020) 150-168
  • [38] Auryn Ramadhany Geraldine, Rosidah, Heti Herawati, Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina, Isolation and Identification of Potential Pathogenic Bacteria in Living Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) Sold in Supermarkets in Cimahi City, Java. World News of Natural Sciences 32 (2020) 21-35
  • [39] Afifah Shabirah, Rosidah, Yuniar Mulyani, Walim Lili, Effect of Types Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria on Hematocrit and Differential Leukocytes Fingerling Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria. World News of Natural Sciences 24 (2019) 22-35

Document Type


Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.