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2018 | 18 | 1 | 61–73
Article title

Trudności w diagnostyce choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej

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Title variants
EN
Difficulties in the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Bipolar affective disorder is characterised by a high recurrence, early onset, family history and predilection for progression. Frequently, it remains undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as another disorder, with as many as one third of all patients remaining misdiagnosed for 10 years or longer. It is most commonly misconstrued as recurrent unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or personality disorders. A delayed recognition of bipolar symptoms is associated with significant clinical consequences, including delayed introduction of appropriate pharmacotherapy, a higher recurrence, greater suicidal attempt and hospital stay rate, developing resistance to medication and a risk for a rapid shift of moods. The diagnostic difficulties result from the fact that the clinical picture of the bipolar spectrum is very diverse, with the disease often manifesting with atypical or subclinical symptoms. Also, adequate knowledge of the diagnostic criteria tends to be missing, and patients and their families tend to lack a critical approach, rarely reporting maniac/hypomaniac symptoms. To increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process, the use of screening questionnaires is recommended in the case of patients e.g. diagnosed with depression as well as vigilance for depressive symptoms more commonly experienced in the conditions from the bipolar spectrum. Currently, the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder is based on history and careful evaluation of the clinical picture, yet research aimed at finding clinically relevant biomarkers, correlating with the condition’s alternate episodes or its severity, is under way.
PL
Choroba afektywna dwubiegunowa cechuje się wysoką nawrotowością, wczesnym początkiem, rodzinnym występowaniem i tendencją do progresji. Bardzo często zdarza się, że długo pozostaje nierozpoznana albo niewłaściwie zakwalifikowana jako inne zaburzenie (nawet ⅓ pacjentów może być błędnie zdiagnozowana przez 10 lat lub dłużej). Najczęściej mylona jest z depresją nawracającą, zaburzeniami lękowymi, schizofrenią i zaburzeniami osobowości. Zbyt późne wykrycie objawów dwubiegunowości i postawienie diagnozy choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej pociąga za sobą istotne konsekwencje kliniczne, w tym opóźnienie rozpoczęcia właściwej farmakoterapii, wyższą liczbę nawrotów, większą częstość prób samobójczych i hospitalizacji, rozwój oporności na leczenie i ryzyko szybkiej zmiany faz. Trudności diagnostyczne wynikają m.in. z faktu, że obraz kliniczny spektrum choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej jest bardzo zróżnicowany, a choroba przebiega z nietypowymi bądź subklinicznymi objawami. Ponadto wiedza na temat kryteriów rozpoznawania zaburzeń z kręgu spektrum dwubiegunowego nie jest wystarczająco rozpowszechniona, a pacjenci i ich bliscy bywają bezkrytyczni i zbyt rzadko zgłaszają objawy maniakalne/hipomaniakalne. W celu zwiększenia precyzji procesu diagnostycznego zaleca się – m.in. u osób z diagnozą depresji  – stosowanie przesiewowych kwestionariuszy oraz zwracanie szczególnej uwagi na specyficzne cechy depresji, które częściej występują w zaburzeniach ze spektrum choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej. Obecnie diagnozę stawia się na podstawie wywiadu i obserwacji obrazu klinicznego. Trwają jednak poszukiwania wskaźników biologicznych (biomarkerów), które mogłyby odzwierciedlać obecność stanu chorobowego czy też korelować z fazami choroby i jej nasileniem.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
18
Issue
1
Pages
61–73
Physical description
Contributors
  • Katedra Psychiatrii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Polska
author
  • Zakład Zaburzeń Afektywnych, Katedra Psychiatrii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Polska, marcin.siwek@uj.edu.pl
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-488f9c68-0797-47ef-ad19-299f689521de
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