Potential biological control agents against mosquito vector in the case of larvae stage: A review
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Malaria is a major public health problem in most tropical and subtropical regions, including in our country, Ethiopia. A report published in 2010 stated that more than 1.2 million global malaria deaths due to malaria occurred in the one year alone. This figure includes both children and adults. Malaria disease is transferred from an infected person to an uninfected one by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. Herein, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. knowlesi are the most important malaria causing parasites. Malaria disease does not have any effective treatment in the form of vaccines or drugs, so vector control is the only possible ways of prevention. Mosquito control using pesticides is presently the most widely used method for disease control. However, insecticide resistance has enabled pest resurgence, and the insecticides themselves have negative effects on human health, the environment and non-target organisms. In order to avoid these problems, biological control methods are proposed to control mosquito vectors. Biological control is an ecologically safe and effective means of minimizing pests and pest damage by means of using natural enemies. This review article offers an over view of the most favorable biological control methods for malaria extermination, such as larvivorous fish, entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and toxorhynchites larva. Here, we will discuss the current literature regarding biological control agents against the mosquito vector, and in doing so, will bring to light the importance of biological control in countering malaria. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of biological control methods, as compared with other methods commonly used to control malaria.
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