Modelling of Rainfall-Runoff Relationship in Big-Akaki Watershed, Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia
Languages of publication
Accurate estimation of surface runoff is a challenging task, but it is an important research topic because surface runoff plays a vital role in the study of the hydrological cycle, climate change, water resources, flood management, etc. Surface runoff reflects the amount of water that moves from the watershed into the river system and the amount that is drawn from it. The Big-Akaki watershed has suffered severe flooding due to increasing urbanization, deforestation, as well as reckless use of land and water resources that has led to the appearance of soil erosion. In our work, the SCS curve number was used to estimate runoff from the basin surface, and SWAT was used to delineate the basin and analyze the slope of the watershed, the soil and land uses. In addition, ground control points, interviews and field observation were carried out to collect data on the LULC classification. Moreover, model calibration (1991-1998) and validation (1999-2004) were performed for the monthly flow at the Akaki measuring station. The Big-Akaki watershed has a drainage area of 971,849 km2. The simulation was carried out by dividing the watershed into 33 sub-basins and assigning a hydrological response unit based on the definition of multiple HRU. The results indicate that SWAT generally works well by simulating runoff according to the result of three objectives (NSE, R2 and RSR). For surface runoff, the NSE, R2 and RSR values were 0.81, 0.82 and 0.44 during the calibration and 0.77, 0.77 and 0.48 during the validation period, respectively. Finally, the annual average precipitation and surface runoff of the Big-Akaki basin is 1183.56 mm and 227.634 mm, respectively. In addition, the results showed a direct relationship between rainfall and surface runoff.
-  Lopez-Vicente, M., (2013). Predicting Runoff and Sediment Connectivity and Soil Erosion by Water for Different Land Use Scenarios in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. CATENA 102; 6273.
-  Liu, M., (2012). Effects of Multiple Environment Stresses on Evapotranspiration and Runoff Over Eastern China. Journal of Hydrology 426-427, 39-54.
-  Boegh, E., (2009). Remote Sensing Based Evapotranspiration and Runoff Modeling of Agricultural, Forest and Urban Flux Sites in Denmark: From Field to Macro-Scale. Journal of Hydrology 377 (3-4), 300-316.
-  Lenzi, M.A. and DiLuzio, M. (1997). Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion and Water Quality Modelling in the Alpone Watershed using AGNPS Integrated with a Geographic Information System. European Journal of Agronomy 6 (1-2), 1-14.
-  Marttila, H. and Klove, B. (2010). Managing Runoff, Water Quality and Erosion in Peatland Forestry by Peak Runoff Control. Ecological Engineering 36 (7), 900-911.
-  Mchunu, C. and Chaplot, V. (2012). Land Degradation Impact on Soil Carbon Losses through Water Erosion and CO2 Emissions. Geoderma 177, 72-79.
-  Tripathi,R., (2014). Climate Change, Urban Development, and Community Perception of an Extreme Flood: A Case Study of Vernonia, Oregon, USA. Applied Geography 46, 137-146.
-  Rogger, M., (2012). Runoff Models and Flood Frequency Statistics for Design Flood Estimation in Austria – Do they Tell a Consistent Story? Journal of Hydrology 456-457, 30-43.
-  Horton, R.E. (1933). The Role of Infiltration in the Hydrologic Cycle. Eos Trans. AGU 14; 446-460.
-  Surur, A. (2010). Simulated Impact of Land use dynamics on hydrology during a 20-year period of Beles Basin in Ethiopia. M.Sc Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden
-  Tibebe, D.B., W. (2011) Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion Estimation Using the Swat Model in the Keleta Watershed, Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 22 (6), 551-564.
-  Casali, J., (2008). Runoff, Erosion, and Water Quality of Agricultural Watersheds in Central Navarre (Spain). Agricultural Water Management 95 (10), 1111-1128.
-  Fukunaga, D.C., (2015). Application of the SWAT Hydrologic Model to a Tropical Watershed at Brazil. CATENA 125 (0) 206-213.
-  Eshetu Tufa Senti, Bayissa Waltaji Tufa and Kbrom Ambachew Gebrehiwot (2014). Soil erosion, sediment yield and conservation practices assessment on Lake Haramaya Catchment. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2 (7), pp. 186-193
-  Tesfa Gebrie Andualem, Bogale Gebremariam (2015). Impact Of Land Use Land Cover Change On Stream Flow And Sediment Yield: A Case Study Of Gilgel Abay Watershed, Lake Tana Sub-Basin, Ethiopia. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research, 3, 11, 28-42
-  Sahin, V. & M.J. Hall (1996). The effects of afforestation and deforestation on water yields. Journal of Hydrology, 178: 293-309.
-  Ethiopia Population. (2019-08-28). Retrieved 2019-10-21, from http://world population review.com/countries/ethiopia/
-  JICA and Region 14 Administration (1998) Addis Ababa flood control project Volume V.Julian, P.Y.(1998). Erosion and sedimentation‖. Cambridge University Press.
-  Neitsch, S.L., (2009): Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation, Version 2009. Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report No. 406.
-  USDA-SCS, (1972) USDA Soil Conservation Service-National Engineering Handbook Section 4. Hydrology and, Chapters 4-10.
-  Green, WaGAH. (1911). Studies of Soil Physics, Part I –The Flow of Air and Water through Soils. Physical Hydrology for Ecosystems 4, 11-24.
-  Ritchie, J.T. (1972) A Model for Predicting Evaporation from a Row Crop with Incomplete Cover. Water Resour. Res. 8, 1204-1213.
-  Hargreaves, G.L., (1985). Agricultural Benefits for Senegal River Basin. Engr. 111 (2) 113-124.
-  Priestley, C.H.B. and Taylor, R.J. (1972). On the Assessment of Surface Heat Flux and Evaporation Using Large-Scale Parameters. Mon. Weather Rev. 100; 81-92.
-  Monteith, J.L. (1965) Evaporation and the Environment. In: The State and Movement of Water in Living Organisms. 19th Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, U.K. 205-234.
-  Adimasu W. (2016). Land Use Land Cover change detection of Akaki river watershed. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology 1(1), 1-10.
-  Abbaspour, K. (2014). User Manual for SWAT-CUP, SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis Programs. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. Duebendorf, Switzerland, p. 101.
-  Woldeamlak Bewket & Solomon Abebe (2013) Land-use and land-cover change and its environmental implications in a tropical highland watershed, Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 70:1, 126-139.
Publication order reference