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2014 | 14 | 2 | 96-106
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Ropień mózgu

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EN
Cerebral abscess
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Abstracts
EN
The advent of CT/MRI and modern antibiotics along with the progress in surgical techniques made both diagnosis and management of brain abscesses easier and safer. Nonetheless they remain one of the most challenging lesions, both for surgeons and internists. Atypical bacterial and fungal abscesses are frequently due to chemotherapy, immunosuppression, HIV infection, or prolonged antibiotic therapy. This paper gives an account of epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis of cerebral abscesses, discusses stages of the infection and stadia of the abscess formation as well as immune response, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prognosis. The specific clinical picture of mucormycotic abscesses and those caused by Aspergillus sp., Nocardia sp. and Scedosporium apiospermum were addressed, as were the contemporary MR techniques – diffusion weighted images (DWI) and proton spectroscopy (MRS). Up-to-date there has been no randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two methods of surgery: tap and aspiration versus excision. The review of the literature allowed a presentation of recommended management variants. Currently, mortality in brain abscesses decreased down to 17–32%. From 20% to 70% of patients have permanent neurological sequelae, often (30–50%) epilepsy. Immunosuppression and comorbidities, initial neurological status, and intraventricular rupture are significant factors influencing the outcomes of patients.
PL
Rozwój badań obrazowych (CT i MRI), wprowadzenie nowoczesnej antybiotykoterapii, a także postępy techniki chirurgicznej sprawiły, że rozpoznanie oraz leczenie ropni mózgu stało się łatwiejsze i bezpieczniejsze. Mimo to w dalszym ciągu stanowią one poważne wyzwanie dla klinicystów. Szczególnie ważnym zagadnieniem są atypowe ropnie bakteryjne, jak również ropnie grzybicze, występujące zwykle u chorych poddawanych chemioterapii, immunosupresji, zakażonych HIV oraz po długotrwałym leczeniu antybiotykami. W pracy omówiono epidemiologię, etiologię i patogenezę ropni mózgu, stadia zakażenia oraz związane z nimi fazy rozwoju ropnia, mechanizmy obronne organizmu, a także objawy kliniczne, diagnostykę, leczenie i rokowanie. Zwrócono uwagę na swoisty obraz kliniczny ropni mukormykotycznych, kropidlakowych oraz wywołanych przez Nocardia sp. i Scedosporium apiospermum, jak również na współczesne techniki MRI znajdujące zastosowanie w rozpoznaniu różnicowym ropni – dyfuzję i spektroskopię. Jak dotąd nie przeprowadzono randomizowanego badania klinicznego porównującego dwie metody leczenia chirurgicznego: aspirację i usunięcie ropnia. Przedstawiono dane z piśmiennictwa na ich temat, dokonując przeglądu zalecanych sposobów postępowania. Współcześnie śmiertelność w przypadku ropnia mózgu zmalała do 17–32%. Od 20 do 70% chorych ma trwałe następstwa neurologiczne, często (30–50%) padaczkę. Najważniejsze czynniki wpływające na rokowanie to: obecność zaburzeń odporności, choroby współistniejące, stan neurologiczny przy przyjęciu do szpitala i przebicie się ropnia do układu komorowego.
Discipline
Year
Volume
14
Issue
2
Pages
96-106
Physical description
References
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article
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