Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2018 | 110 | 129-146
Article title

A review of current literature on the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of HIV/AIDS

Title variants
Languages of publication
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of various diseases associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. AIDS is one of the most common infectious illness with 1.8 million of new cases and approximately 36.7 million living with HIV. AIDS becomes a worldwide problem and due to rising number of HIV-positive patients, the appropriate medical care is needed. This article takes into consideration the current information about pathogenesis of HIV infection, clinical and biochemical symptoms, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment the disease. Furthermore, the article describes the side effects of the treatment, the methods of their diagnosis and prevalence, and focuses on the psychological problems of HIV-positive people.
Physical description
  • Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 5, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 5, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Faculty of Clinical Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ostrowskiego 30b, 53-238 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 5, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Experimental Biology, University of Wroclaw, Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 5, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Department of Forensic Medicine, Molecular Techniques Unit, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 4, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
  • [1] Rom W, Markowitz S. Environmental and occupational medicine (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2007) 745.
  • [2] European Centre for Disease Prevention & Control. HIV Testing: increase uptake and effectiveness in the European Union (2010) 1-34.
  • [3] Foley B, Apetrei C, Mizrachi I, Rambaut A, Korber B, Kuiken C, et al. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010 (2010).
  • [4] Arrildt KT, Joseph SB, Swanstrom R. The HIV-1 Env protein: A coat of many colors. Current HIV/AIDS Reports 9(1) (2012) 52-63.
  • [5] Chan DC, Fass D, Berger JM, Kim PS. Core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein, Cell 89(2) (1997) 263-273.
  • [6] Tang J, Kaslow R. The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, AIDS 17(Suppl 4) (2003) 51–60.
  • [7] Zheng YH, Lovsin N, Peterlin BM. Newly identified host factors modulate HIV replication, Immunology Letters 97(2) (2005) 225-234.
  • [8] Pollard VW, Malim MH. The hiv-1 rev protein, Annu Rev Microbiol 52 (1998) 491-532.
  • [9] Aliberti J. Control of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses During Infectious Diseases, Springer Verlag (2011) 145.
  • [10] Appay V, Sauce D. Immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 infection: causes and consequences, J Pathol 214(2) (2008) 231-241.
  • [11] Schneider E, Whitmore S, Glynn KM, Dominguez K, Mitsch A, McKenna MT, et al. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged, MMWR Recomm Rep 57(RR-10) (2008) 1-12.
  • [12] Kassutto S, Rosenberg ES. Primary HIV type 1 infection, Clin Infect Dis 38(10) (2004) 1447-1453.
  • [13] Kahn JO, Walker BD. Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection, N Engl J Med 339(1) (1998) 33-39.
  • [14] Brenner BG, Roger M, Routy J, Moisi D, Ntemgwa M, Matte C, et al. High Rates of Forward Transmission Events after Acute/Early HIV‐1 Infection, J Infect Dis 195(7) (2007) 951-959.
  • [15] Pao D, Fisher M, Hue S, Dean G, Murphy G, Cane P, et al. Transmission of HIV-1 during primary infection: relationship to sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections, Aids 19(1) (2005) 85-90.
  • [16] Abrams DI, Kaplan LD, McGrath MS, Volberding PA. AIDS-related benign lymphadenopathy and malignant lymphoma: clinical aspects and virologic interactions. AIDS Res 2(Suppl 1) (1986) S131-40.
  • [17] Ertunc B, Kaya S, Koksal I. Clinico-Epidemiological Analysis of HIV/AIDS Patients. Eurasian J Med 48(3) (2016) 157–61.
  • [18] Knowles DM. Etiology and pathogenesis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 17(3) (2003) 785-820.
  • [19] Chen Y-B, Rahemtullah A, Hochberg E. Primary effusion lymphoma, Oncologist 12(5) (2007) 569-576.
  • [20] World Health Organization. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children, World Health (2007).
  • [21] Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, MMWR Recomm Rep 64(RR-03) (2015) 1-137.
  • [22] Saag MS, Chambers HF, Eliopoulos GM, Gilbert DN. The Sanford Guide To HIV/AIDS Therapy, Antimicrobial Therapy (2015).
  • [23] Cancian L, Hansen A, Boshoff C. Cellular origin of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-induced cell reprogramming, Trends in Cell Biology 23(9) (2013) 421-432.
  • [24] Kirk O. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, Blood 98(12) (2001) 3406–12.
  • [25] Simonelli C, Tedeschi R, Gloghini A, Bortolin MT, Spina M, Bidoli E, et al. Characterization of Immunologic and Virological Parameters in HIV‐Infected Patients with Primary Effusion Lymphoma during Antiblastic Therapy and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Clin Infect Dis 40(7) 2005 1022-7.
  • [26] Sun XW, Kuhn L, Ellerbrock T V, Chiasson M a, Bush TJ, Wright TC. Human papillomavirus infection in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, N Engl J Med 337(19) (1997) 1343-9.
  • [27] Mbulaiteye SM, Biggar RJ, Goedert JJ, Engels EA. Immune deficiency and risk for malignancy among persons with AIDS, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 32(5) (2003) 527–33.
  • [28] Bhatti AB, Usman M, Kandi V. Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS, Treatment Options, and Major Challenges with Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy. Cureus 8(3) (2016) e515.
  • [29] Cornett JK, Kirn TJ. Laboratory diagnosis of HIV in adults: A review of current methods, Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(5) (2013) 712-8.
  • [30] Arora DR, Maheshwari M, Arora B. Rapid Point-of-Care Testing for Detection of HIV and Clinical Monitoring, ISRN AIDS 2013 (2013) 287269.
  • [31] WHO. Consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services 2015. World Heal Organ. 2015.
  • [32] Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex with Men, N Engl J Med. 363 (2010) 2587-2599.
  • [33] Sultan B, Benn P, Waters L. Current perspectives in HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. HIV AIDS (Auckl) 6 (2014) 147–58.
  • [34] Weitz R. Uncertainty and the Lives of Persons with AIDS, J Health Soc Behav 30(3) (1989) 270-281.
  • [35] Gonzalez JS, Penedo FJ, Antoni MH, Durán RE, Fernandez MI, McPherson-Baker S, et al. Social support, positive states of mind, and HIV treatment adherence in men and women living with HIV/AIDS. Health Psychol. 2004 Jul; 23(4): 413-418
  • [36] Safren SA, O’Cleirigh CM, Bullis JR, Otto MW, Stein MD, Pollack MH. Cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-infected injection drug users: A randomized controlled trial, J Consult Clin Psychol 80(3) (2012) 404-415.
  • [37] Dos Santos AP, Navarro AM, Schwingel A, Alves TC, Abdalla PP, Venturini ACR, et al. Lipodystrophy diagnosis in people living with HIV/AIDS: prediction and validation of sex-specific anthropometric models. BMC Public Health 18(1) (2018) 806.
  • [38] Saint-Marc T, Partisani M, Poizot-Martin I, Rouviere O, Bruno F, Avellaneda R, et al. Fat distribution evaluated by computed tomography and metabolic abnormalities in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy: preliminary results of the LIPOCO study, AIDS 14(1) (2000) 37-49.
  • [39] Carr A, Samaras K, Burton S, Law M, Freund J, Chisholm DJ, et al. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors, AIDS 12(7) (1998) F51-8.
  • [40] Calza L, Manfredi R, Chiodo F. Dyslipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients, J Antimicrob Chemother 53(1) (2004) 10–4.
  • [41] Chen D, Misra A, Garg A. Clinical review 153: Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87(11) (2002) 4845-56.
  • [42] Oh J, Hegele RA. HIV-associated dyslipidaemia: pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet Infectious Diseases 7(12) (2007) 787-96.
  • [43] Lichtenstein KA. Redefining lipodystrophy syndrome: Risks and impact on clinical decision making, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 39(4) (2005) 395-400.
  • [44] Huyghe J, Magdalena S, Vandekerckhove L. Fight fire with fire: Gene therapy strategies to cure HIV, Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 15(8) (2017) 747–58.
  • [45] Apostolopoulos V. Vaccine Delivery Methods into the Future, Vaccines 4(2) (2016) 9.
  • [46] Zakeri A, Kouhbanani MAJ, Beheshtkhoo N, Beigi V, Mousavi SM, Hashemi SAR, et al. Polyethylenimine-based nanocarriers in co-delivery of drug and gene: a developing horizon, Nano Rev Exp 9(1) (2018) 1488497.
  • [47] Jakutavičiūtė M, Ruzgys P, Tamošiūnas M, Maciulevičius M, Šatkauskas S. Physical Methods for Drug and Gene Delivery Through the Cell Plasma Membrane. In: Advances in anatomy, embryology, and cell biology (2017) 73–92.
  • [48] Rosazza C, Meglic SH, Zumbusch A, Rols M-P, Miklavcic D. Gene Electrotransfer: A Mechanistic Perspective, Curr Gene Ther 16(2) (2016) 98–129.
  • [49] Nilsson C, Hejdeman B, Godoy-Ramirez K, Tecleab T, Scarlatti G, Bråve A, et al. HIV-DNA Given with or without Intradermal Electroporation Is Safe and Highly Immunogenic in Healthy Swedish HIV-1 DNA/MVA Vaccinees: A Phase I Randomized Trial. PLoS One 10(6) (2015) e0131748.
  • [50] Miracle A. Adesina, Kehinde K. Kanmodi, Physiotherapeutic Management of People Living with HIV/AIDS. World News of Natural Sciences 20 (2018) 238-247
  • [51] Kojom Loick Pradel, Tuileu Tchamake Sorelle Kelly, Assokom Eliane Vanessa, Kouemo Motse Francine Dorgelesse, Kamgain Mawabo Lugarde, Improvement in CD4 cells counts in newly diagnosed HIV infected Cameroonian patients under HARRT is counterbalanced by the mild deleterious effects of antiretroviral therapy on liver function: a longitudinal study. World News of Natural Sciences 20 (2018) 215-225
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.