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2022 | 169 | 1-13

Article title

A short-term survey on menopausal transition in selected urban and rural areas in West Bengal, India



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Menopause denotes the permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian follicular activity resulting in permanent amenorrhoea. It represents transitional reproductive ageing. Dropping of female hormones like Oestrogen and Progesterone levels is noticed during this phase. It may occur either naturally (usually at the age of 45-55 years universally) or by the influence of inducing factors (surgery or radiation or chemotherapy etc.). Epidemiological surveys issuing the menopausal onset age and problems is of utter importance as early menopause often gets associated with increased cardiovascular risk, obesity and osteoporosis and delayed menopause may lead to accelerated risk of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Present study had dealt with a community based cross sectional random survey if six months’ duration. The study population was composed of middle aged women (40-55 years) from urban and rural field practice area. The survey was based on a study over a pre tested questionnaire and the data obtained was presented as percentages and average values. From the survey, the average age of onset of menopause was found to be around 46 years. Associated symptoms included hot flushes, fatigue, cold sweat, muscle pain, lack of memory, sleeping disorder, genital problems (itching, vaginal dryness, bladder problems etc.), diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension, joint pain, emotional problems (depression, irritation) etc. Arrangements for provision of relevant health service education promotion activities for reproductive health management are very urgent for the Indian women belonging to all the levels of socioeconomic background.







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  • Department of Zoology, Bethune College, Kolkata – 700006, West Bengal, India


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