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Assessment of Soil Based Heavy Metals from Anthropogenic Activities in Kaduna Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

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Soil based heavy metals resulting from anthropogenic activities in Kaduna Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria was assessed. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 15m with a soil auger using 50m × 50m plots laid in each of the four sites (ST1, ST2, ST3 and ST4) replicated three (3) times to make a total of twelve (12) plots. The assessment was done in two (2) seasons (wet season and dry season). Soil based heavy metals were carried out according to AOAC using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistic as well as Anova using SPSS package. Eleven (11) soil based heavy metals; V, Cr, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu, Br, Pb, Cd and Fe were revealed in each of the selected sites. There were significant differences (P<0.05) when concentration are compared between seasons within the sites. Higher soil heavy based metals were recorded in the wet season than the dry season in all the sites. The sites behind Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) is significantly higher (P<0.05) in concentration than all other sites while the control (Kamaku National Park) has the least concentration (P<0.05). Pearson correlation showed a significant and positive association between soil based heavy metals and automobile / farming activities in wet season (R = 0.40**) and dry season (R = 0.95**) as well as in industrial / farming activities in wet season (R = 0.88**) and dry season (R = 0.94**) at 0.01 probability level. It is concluded that variation in the assessment of soil based heavy metals in the selected sites are influenced by anthropogenic activities (mainly agriculture and fossil fuel combustion) in the sites. It is recommended that there should be provision for licensing and registration of all major industrial polluters and monitoring their compliance with laid down standard; further research into anthropogenic air pollution and farming activities which leads to increase in soil based heavy metals especially in the Northern Guinea Savanna where there are limited research should be investigated.
Physical description
  • Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, P.M.B. 2273, Afaka – Kaduna, Nigeria
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
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