Intermittent fasting and its influence on health
Languages of publication
Food addiction is today the major cause of disease and death in our society and other economically developed countries. Hypothetically, this problem could be solved by simply convey the consequences of overeating to professionals and public. In reality though, it has been greatly difficult to successfully execute prolonged dietary restriction regimens. In context of the non - ability of many peop le to reduce their food intake, research pursuit are in progression to identify ways to alternatively reduce food intake or imitating the beneficial effects of dietary restriction using medical products, dietary supplements and gene therapies. Although all cells in the body require energy to last and perform efficiently, excessive calorie intake over long period of time can modify cell function and promote susceptibility to disease. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that intermittent fa sting (IF), can prolong the health through multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of IF on the health will likely lead to novel approaches fo r preventing and treating numerous health disorders.
- University of P. J. Šafárik in Kosice, Institute of Education and Sport, Slovakia, firstname.lastname@example.org
- University of P. J. Šafárik in Kosice, Institute of Education and Sport, Slovakia
- University of P. J. Šafárik in Kosice, Fakulty of Medicine, Slovakia
- Matej Bel University Faculty of Art., Department of Physical Education and Sport, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
- 1. Walford RD., Mock D, Verdery R., Maccallum T: Calorie restriction in biosphere 2. Alteration in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period. J.Gerontol. 2002; 57, B211-B224
- 2. Sprott RL: Diet and calorie restriction. Exp. Gerontol. 1997; 32: 205–214
- 3. Weindruch R, Walford RL: In: The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction.Thomas, Charles C, editors. Springfield, IL: 1988
- 4. McCay CM, Crowell MF, Maynard LA: The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life-span and upon the ultimate body size. J. Nutr. 1935; 10: 63–79
- 5. Longo D., Mattson MP: Fasting. Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Cell Metab. 2014; 4:19(2): 181-192
- 6.Stipp D: How Intermittent Fasting Might Help You Live a Longer and Healthier Life. Scientific America. 2013
- 7. Wegman MP, Guo MH, Bennion DM, Shankar MN, CHrzanowski SM, Goldberg LA, Xu J, Williams TA, Lu X, Hsu SI, Anton SD, Leeuwenburgh C, Brantly ML: Practicality of intermittent fasting in humans and its effect on oxidative stress and genes related to aging and metabolism. Rejuvenation Res. 2015; 18(2):162-72 doi: 10.1089/rej.2014.1624
- 8. Mattso M.P., Wan P: Beneficial effects on intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2005; 16(3): 129-37
- 9. Brochu M, Poehlaman ET, Ades PA: Obesity, body fat distribution, and coronary artery disease. J. Cardiopulm.Rehabil. 2000; 20: 96-108
- 10. Johnstone A: Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend? Int J Obes (Lond). 2014; 39(5): 727-33. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2014.214. E.pub 2014 Dec 26
- 11. Varady KA, Gottlieb B: Every other day diet. Hachette Book Group. 2013;1-233
- 12. Schoenfelld B: Does Cardio after an Overnight Fast Maximize Fat Loss? Strength and Conditioning J. 2011; 33(1) doi: 10.1519/SSC. 0b013e31820396ec.
- 13. Marcola M: Fasting and High Intensity Exercise. 2014; http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/08/17/intermittent-fasting-high-intensity-exercise.aspx.
- 14. Varady KA: Intermittent versus Daily Calorie Restriction: Which Diet Regimen Is More Effective for Weight Loss?” Obesity Reviews 2012; 12 (7): 593–601 doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00873.x. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21410865
- 15. Pilon B: Eat stop Eat. 5th Edition. publisher. Strength Work. 2012; 177
- 16. Bishop NA, Lu T, Yankner BA: Neural mechanisms of ageing and cognitive decline. Nature. 2010; 464:529–535
- 17. Fontana L, Weiss EP, Villareal DT, Klein S, Holloszy JO: Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans. Aging Cell. 2008; 7: 681–687
- 18. Lim EL, Hollingsworth KG, Aribisala BS et al: Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Diabetologia. 2011; 54: 2506-14
- 19. Anson RM, Guo Z, De Cabo R, Iyun T, Rios M, Hagepanos A, et al. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003; 100: 6216–6220
- 20. Johnson JB, Summer W, Cutler RG, Martin B, Hyun DH, Dixit VD, Pearson M, Nassar M, Telljohann R, Maudsley S, Carlson O, John S, Laub DR, Mattson MP: Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007; 1; 42(5): 665-74. Epub 2006 Dec 14
- 21. Bronwen M, Mattson A MP, Maudsleya S: Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2006; 5(3): 332–353 Published online 2006 Aug 8. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2006.04.002
- 22. Rothman SM, Griffioen KJ, Wan R, Mattson MP: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a regulator of systemic and brain energy metabolism and cardiovascular health. Ann N.Y Acad. Sci. 2012; 1264: 49–63
- 23. Lee J, Duan W, Mattson MP: Evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for basa l neurogenesis and mediates, in part, the enhancement of neurogenesis by dietary restriction in the hippocampus of adult mice. J. Neurochem. 2002; 82: 1367–1375
- 24. Mitchell GA, Kassovska–Bratinova S, Boukaftane Y, Robert MF, Wang SP, Ashamarina L, Lambert M, Lapierre P, Potier E: Clin Invest Med. 1995; 18: 193–216
- 25. Bough KJ, Valiyil R, Han FT, Eagles DA:Seizure resistance is dependent upon age and calorie restriction in rats fed a ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Res. 1999; 35:21–28
- 26. Raeini-Sarjaz et al.:American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. "Energy-Restricted Diets Shown To Be Best For Improving Lipid Profiles." Science Daily, 25 January 2001; <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/01/010123075904.htm
- 27. Wan R, Ahmet I, Brown B., Cheng A., Kammura N., Talan M. et al.:Cardioprotective effect of intermittent fasting is associated with an elevation of adiponectin level in rats. J Nut Bio 2010; 21: 413-417
- 28. Kaya ST., Bozdogan O: The effect of intermittent fasting and water restriction on myocardial ischemia / reperfusion-induced arrhythmia in rats. Turk J Med Sci. 2012; 42 (Sup. 2): 1484-1489 doi. 10.3906/sag-1204-83
- 29. Null G: Get healthy now. Turnaround pub. Canada. 2001; 1039.
- 30. Guevara-Aguirre J, Balasubramanian P, Guevara-Aguirrem M, Wei M, Madia F, Cheng CW, Hwanng D, Martin-Montalvo A, Saavedra J, Ingles S, De Cabo R, Cohen P, Longo VD: Growth hormone receptor deficiency is associated with a major reduction in pro-aging signaling, cancer, and diabetes in humans. Sci Trans l Med. 2011; 3: 70ra13.
- 31. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucie MAJ, Pollak M: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 and prostate cancer risk: epidemiological studies. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2000; 10(Suppl A): 32–33
- 32. Birkenhager JC., Haak A., Ackers JG: Chances in body composition during treatment of obesity by intermittent starvation. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 1968; 17: 391-399
- 33. Balla MF, Canary JJ., Kyle LH: Tissue changes during intermittent starvation and caloric restriction as treatment for sever obesity. Archive of internal medicine. 1970; 125: 62-68
- 34. Arguin H., Dionne IJ., Senechal M., et al. Short and long term effects of continuous versus intermittent restrictive diet approaches on body composition and the metabolic profile in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. a pilot study. Menopause. 2012; 19: 870-6
- 35. Day C., Bailey CJ: The hypocaloric diet in type 2 diabetes-déjà vu. Br J diabetes Vasc Dis. 2012: 48-51
- 36. Klempel MC., Kroeger MC, Bhutani S, Trepanowski FJ, Varady KA: Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women. Nutrition J. 2012; DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-98.
- 37. Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL: Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 102(2): 464-470. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.109553. Epub 2015 Jul
- 38. De Azevedo F., Ikeoka D., Caramelli B: Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men. Science Direct: 2012; 59(2): 167-173, doi:10.1016/j.ramb.2012.09.003
- 39. Lindstrom J, Uusitupa M: Lifestyle intervention, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Lancet. 2008; 371(9626): 1731–1733
- 40. Harvie MN, Pegington M, Mattson MP, Frystyk J, Dillon B, Evans G, Cuzick J, Jebb SA, Martin B, Cutler RG, Son TG, Maudsley S, Carlson OD, Egan JM, Flyvbjerg A, Howell A: The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. Int J Obes (Lond) 2011; 35: 714–72
Publication order reference