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2016 | 19 | 4 | 53-58
Article title

Zaburzenia hiperkinetyczne z zaburzeniami koncentracji uwagi u dzieci – zagrożenia środowiskowe

Content
Title variants
EN
Environmental risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
EN
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of environmental factors in etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the light of related literature. ADHD is a behavioral disorder often diagnosed among children in the 20th century. In many cases it can persist into adulthood. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Hyperactivity tends to decline over childhood, while symptoms of inattention tend to be more persistent. ADHD affects 8-12% of children worldwide and causes impairment in school performance, intellectual and occupational functioning, and social skills. Various twin studies have highlighted the highly genetic nature of ADHD. It has been currently shown that various environmental risk factors increase the incidence of childhood ADHD. Several biological, psychosocial and chemical factors have been proposed as risk factors for ADHD, among them low birth weight, maternal obesity and poor health, stress and depression, smoking during pregnancy, antepartum haemorrhage, and prenatal exposure to alcohol, heavy metals, organophosphorus pesticides and phthalates. All these risk factors can contribute to the incidence of ADHD in organisms with genetic predisposition.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie roli szkodliwości środowiskowych w rozwoju zaburzeń hiperkinetycznych z zaburzeniami koncentracji uwagi u dzieci (ADHD) w świetle aktualnego piśmiennictwa. Te neurorozwojowe behawioralne zmiany często rozpoznawane w XX w. charakteryzują się zaburzeniami koncentracji uwagi, nadpobudliwością psychoruchową, impulsywnością. Nadpobudliwość maleje z wiekiem, zaburzenia koncentracji uwagi utrzymują się. ADHD rozpoznaje się u 8–12% dzieci w skali świata. W przebiegu ADHD występują: obniżenie sprawności intelektualnej, trudności w nauce szkolnej oraz w późniejszym życiu zawodowym, skłonności do antyspołecznych zachowań. Badania prowadzone na parach bliźniąt potwierdziły genetyczne uwarunkowania ADHD, a szkodliwości środowiskowe przyczyniają się do wzrostu częstości występowania zaburzeń. Zalicza się do nich: niska masa urodzeniowa, otyłość matki, zły stan zdrowia, stres i depresja, palenie papierosów podczas ciąży, krwawienia przedporodowe, prenatalna ekspozycja na alkohol, metale ciężkie, pestycydy fosforoorganiczne. Powyższe czynniki ryzyka sprzyjają rozwojowi ADHD w organizmie z genetyczną predyspozycją.
Publisher

Year
Volume
19
Issue
4
Pages
53-58
Physical description
Contributors
  • Instytut Medycyny Pracy i Zdrowia Środowiskowego w Sosnowcu
  • Instytut Medycyny Pracy i Zdrowia Środowiskowego w Sosnowcu, Państwowa Medyczna Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Opolu, Wydział Pielęgniarstwa, sekretariat@imp.sosnowiec.pl
  • Katedra i Zakład Higieny Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu
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Document Type
review
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-38ed6eb6-2e3f-40ec-9cba-77b08b5c5194
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