Nutritional intake, sun exposure and vitamin D level in childrens with thalassemia major
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Children with thalassemia major generally experience growth retardation. One of the growth parameters is serum vitamin D levels. The main source of vitamin D comes from endogenous synthesis with sun exposure and dietary sources. This cross sectional study involved 84 children with thalassemia major aged 4-14 years old taken through concecutive sampling. Nutritional intake was obtained through a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire, while the duration of sun exposure was calculated at peak UVB intensities at 11.00-15.00. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to examine vitamin D levels. The data was analized by Spearman Rank corelation dan multiple linier regresion. The results were 4.8% of subjects had vitamin D insufficiency and 95.2% had deficiency. Daily average intake of nutrients compared to their requirements were energy intake 70.5% (1538.7 Kcals), protein 55,4 % (45.5 grams), fat 79,2% (57.7 grams), carbohydrates 68,6% (204.9 grams) and vitamin D 15,8% (2.4 µg). The mean (SD) of sun exposure was 158.3 (91.2) minutes. Energy, protein, and fat intake were significantly associated with vitamin D levels (r = 0.27; 0.31; 0.38 and p <0.025). Sun exposure was strongly associated with vitamin D levels (r = 0.80; p <0.025), while vitamin D intake was associated with vitamin D levels (p> 0.025). Fat intake and sun exposure have a strong effect on vitamin D levels, with a regression equation of vitamin D levels = 5.62 + 0.22 * fat intake + 0.12 * sun exposure.
- Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Eyckman No. 38 Bandung, Indonesia
- Departement of Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Eyckman No.38 Bandung, Indonesia
- Departement of Pediatric Hasan Sadikin Hospital / Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Pasteur No. 38 Bandung, Indonesia
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