Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2016 | 16 | 4 | 85-90
Article title


Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of this study was to find out whether Masters class swimming affects strength disproportion and if there is a correlation between the length of sport swimming training in Masters swimmer’s past (SST) and strength parameter’s deficits? Eighteen Masters category swimmers affiliated in Szczecin Masters Team (178.3 ±2.28 m; 77.9 ±2.86 kg) participated in the study. Isokinetic strength measurement was made on Biodex S4 dynamometer. Subjects performed shoulder flexion/extension moves: 3 repetitions – 60 deg/sec and 20 repetitions – 180 deg/sec. Following values were used: peak torque (PT), maximal repetition work (MRW), coefficient of variation (COV), total work (TW), average power (AP), agonist to antagonist ratio (AG:AN). None of the investigated variables were statistically significant in side to side comparison. All of the parameters were higher in extension. Also, no statistically significant difference between sides in AG:AN. Moderate positive correlation was found between SST and PT deficit in extension movement (0.420). Also low positive correlation between SST and PT deficit in flexion (0.396), and MRW deficit in extension (0.352). Masters class swimming did not affect side strength disproportion or agonist to antagonist differences. However, it is possible that swimming training in other categories does.
  • Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Poland
  • Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Poland
  • Abrahin, O., Rodrigues, R.P., Marçal, A.C., Alves, E.A.C., Figueiredo, R.C., de Sousa, E.C. (2016). Swimming and cycling do not cause positive effects on bone mineral density: a systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition), 56 (4), 345–351.
  • Alonso-Cortés Fradejas, B., Alvear-Órdenes, I., Ramírez-García, C., García-Isla, F.J., González-Gallego, J., Seco Calvo, J. (2006). Valoración isocinética del hombro en jóvenes nadadores mediante un patrón diagonal. Fisioterapia, 28 (6), 298–307.
  • Bak, K. (1996). Nontraumatic glenohumeral instability and coracoacromial impingement in swimmers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 6 (3), 132–144.
  • Banias, P., Rasadean, M. (2011). Study on reduction of swimming speed in relation to age, in freestyle men events, in masters swimming. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2684–2688.
  • Batalha, N., Marmeleira, J., Garrido, N., Silva, A.J. (2014). Does a water-training macrocycle really create imbalances in swimmers’ shoulder rotator muscles? European Journal of Sport Science, 23, 1–6.
  • Batalha, N.M., Raimundo, A.M., Tomas-Carus, P., Barbosa, T.M., Silva, A.J. (2013). Shoulder rotator cuff balance, strength, and endurance in young swimmers during a competitive season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27 (9), 2562–2568.
  • Biodex Medical Systems, Inc. Biodex Multi-Joint System – Pro. Setup/Operation Manual. New York: Biodex Medical Systems, Inc.
  • Biodex Medical Systems, Inc. Isokinetic testing and data interpretation. New York: Biodex Medical Systems, Inc.
  • Codine, P., Bernard, P.L., Pocholle, M., Herisson, C. (2005). Évaluation et rééducation des muscles de l’épaule en isocinétisme: méthodologie, résultats et applications. Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique, 48 (2), 80–92.
  • Crowe, S., Babington, J., Tanner, D., Stager, J. (1999). The relationship of strength to dryland power, swimming power, and swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31 (5), S255.
  • Dionigi, R. (2006). Competitive sport as leisure in later life: negotiations, discourse, and aging. Leis Sci, 28, 181–196.
  • Dopsaj, M., Matković, I., Thanopoulos, V., Okičić, T. (2004). Reliability and validity of basic kinematics and mechanical characteristics of pulling force in swimmers measured by method of tethered swimming with maximum intensity of 60 seconds. Physical Education and Sport, 1 (10), 11–22.
  • Gallagher, M.A., Zuckerman, J.D., Cuomo, F., Ortiz J. (1996). The effect of age, speed, and arm dominance on shoulder function in untrained men. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 5 (1), 25–31.
  • Havriluk, R. (2009). Analyzing Hand Force in Swimming. Three Typical Limiting Factors. ASCA Newsletter, 5, 22–26.
  • Hodge, K., Allen, J.B., Smellie, L. (2008). Motivation in Masters sport: Achievement and social goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 (2), 157–176.
  • Ivey, F.M., Calhoum, J.H., Rusche, K., Bierschenk, J. (1985). Isokinetic testing of shoulder strength/normal values. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 66, 384–386.
  • Kjendlie, P.-L., Thorsvald, K. (2006). A tethered swimming power test is highly reliable. Port J Sport Sci, 6 (S2), 231–233.
  • Lemmer, J.T., Hurlbut, D.E., Martel, T.B.L., Ivey, F.M., Metter, E.J., Fozard, J.L., Fleg, J.L., Hurley B.F. (2003). Age and gender responses to strength training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32, 1505–1512.
  • Mayer, F., Horstman, T. (2001). Diagnostics with isokinetic devices in shoulder measurements – potentials and limits. Isokinet Exerc Sci, 9, 19–25.
  • Morouco, P., Neiva, H., Gonzalez-Badillo, J., Garrido, N., Marinho, D., Marques, M. (2011). Associations Between Dry Land Strength and Power Measurements with Swimming Performance in Elite Athletes: a Pilot Study. J Hum Kinet, 29A, 105–112.
  • Olivier, N., Quintin, G., Rogez, J. (2008). The high level swimmer articular shoulder complex. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique, 51 (5), 342–347.
  • Petrescu, S., Piţigoi, G., Păunescu, M. (2014). The Effects of Practicing Swimming on the Psychological Tone in Adulthood. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 74–77.
  • Ramsi, M., Swanik, K.A., Swanik, C., Straub, S., Mattacola, C. (2004). Shoulder-Rotator Strength of High School Swimmers over the Course of a Competitive Season. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 13 (1), 9–18.
  • Ransdell, L.B., Vener, J., Huberty J. (2009). Masters Athletes: An Analysis of Running, Swimming and Cycling Performance by Age and Gender. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 7 (2), S61–S73.
  • Rittwager, J., di Prampero, P.E., Maffulli, N., Narici, M.V. (2009). Sprint and endurance power and aging: an analysis of master athletic world records. Proc R Soc B, 276, 683–689.
  • Walker, H., Gabbe, B., Wajswelner, H., Blanch, P., Bennell, K. (2012). Shoulder pain in swimmers: A 12-month prospective cohort study of incidence and risk factors. Physical Therapy in Sport, 13 (4), 243–249.
  • Wiażewicz, A. (2015). Izokinetyczna ocena parametrów siłowych u zawodników w Ośrodku Szkolenia Pływackiego w Szczecinie. In: J. Eider (ed.), Wybrane zagadnienia olimpijskie w teorii i praktyce (pp. 197–213). Szczecin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego.
  • Young, B.W., Medic, N. (2011). Examining social influences on the sport commitment of Masters swimmers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12 (2), 168–175.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.