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2016 | 16 | 4 | 187–193
Article title

Metody przyżyciowego (in vivo) określania organizacji ciała migdałowatego u ludzi – aktualny stan wiedzy

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Title variants
EN
Methods for in vivo determination the amygdala organisation in humans: state of the art
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PL
Abstracts
EN
The amygdala is a subcortical structure located bilaterally in the medial temporal lobes. This structure captures the attention of neuroscientists due to its role in emotion processing and learning. Animal studies indicate that groups of nuclei situated in different parts of the amygdala are components of distinct neural circuits underlying in a varied way emotional and cognitive processes. Some authors even argue that the amygdala is deemed a single unit only owing to nuclei groups located closely. Verifying such a hypothesis with regard to humans is very difficult as, until quite recently, there has been only one method of amygdala parcellation, based on post-mortem anatomical tissue analysis. However, in more recent years, several attempts have been made to parcellate the human amygdala on the basis of structural and functional connectivity with other areas of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Results of analyses conducted until now are not congruent in respect of the number and localisation of the obtained amygdala parts. This may be a consequence of using different techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging), various acquisition parameters of scanner and distinct data analysis procedures, especially clustering algorithms. Future research should be focused on the development of the most reliable method for parcellation of the human amygdala to enable clear identification. This will allow one to learn more about the functional organisation of this structure in humans.
PL
Ciało migdałowate jest parzystą strukturą podkorową zlokalizowaną w płatach skroniowych mózgu. Struktura ta wzbudza zainteresowanie badaczy ze względu na jej związek z emocjami i procesami uczenia się. Badania z udziałem zwierząt sugerują, że grupy jąder znajdujące się w różnych częściach ciała migdałowatego są elementami odrębnych sieci neuronowych i mogą pełnić odmienne funkcje w procesach emocjonalnych i poznawczych. Część autorów dochodzi wręcz do wniosku, że ciało migdałowate zostało uznane za jedną strukturę wyłącznie z powodu bliskiego położenia grup jąder. Zweryfikowanie tej hipotezy w odniesieniu do ludzi jest bardzo trudne, ponieważ do niedawna wyodrębnienie części ciała migdałowatego w ludzkim mózgu było możliwe jedynie dzięki badaniom anatomicznym wykonywanym pośmiertnie. Dopiero w ostatnich latach, za pomocą technik rezonansu magnetycznego, podjęto próby określenia części ciała migdałowatego na podstawie strukturalnych i funkcjonalnych połączeń z innymi obszarami mózgu. Dotychczas przeprowadzono nieliczne badania dotyczące tego zagadnienia, jednak ich wyniki nie są spójne – ani pod względem liczby wyodrębnionych części, ani pod względem ich lokalizacji. Przyczyn otrzymywania niejednoznacznych wyników można upatrywać w stosowaniu różnych metod określania połączeń, w różnych parametrach akwizycji danych oraz w posługiwaniu się różnymi technikami analizy, przede wszystkim zaś w  wykorzystywaniu różnych algorytmów grupujących. Przyszłe badania powinny zatem koncentrować się na opracowaniu jak najbardziej wiarygodnego sposobu wyróżniania części ciała migdałowatego, który pozwoliłby na jednoznaczne ich zidentyfikowanie. Tylko wtedy możliwe będzie pełne poznanie funkcjonalnej organizacji ciała migdałowatego u ludzi.
Discipline
Year
Volume
16
Issue
4
Pages
187–193
Physical description
References
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article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-30b759cf-3f00-4ee5-bde0-be8c87e39669
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