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2017 | 69 | 154-167
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The Dynamics of Transition of Rural Migrants to Urban Society: Case Study of Igbomina Migrant Community in Lagos

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Adaptation is the process of adjustment of an individual organism to environmental conditions while integration is the process of opening a group, community, place or organization to all members, regardless of race, religion gender or social class. The dynamics of the process of transition of Igbomina people from rural to urban society was gradual and spread over a long time. They initially established in town the socio-political institutions and behavioral patterns which were familiar to them to fulfill most of the needs, which they met in urban environment. Even in later migration, there were not many changes to the pattern of family life. Migrants retained their rural system of traditional values; the concept of the urban culture did not develop due to the well-established culture of circular migration. The range of relationships that ethnic groups maintained among one another within the frame work of contemporary migratory phenomena includes cases such as assimilation, pacific coexistence and animosity. It must be underlined however, that in spite of the integration process, the identity of Igbomina was not obliterated. The transition process of Igbomina into Lagos urban society could therefore be best described as acculturation rather than assimilation in that Igbomina culture in Lagos cannot be described as an extension of the northern Yoruba sub-culture from where they came to Lagos, it was rather a symbiotic relationship between the Yoruba, Hausa, Ibo etc. living together as neighbours.
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  • Department of History & International Studies, College of Humanities & Culture, Ikire, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
  • [1] Fakeye, J. O. & Prof. Afolayan interviewed 21st August 2000.
  • [2] Ibid
  • [3] Albert, I. O., Hausa Political System in Diaspora: The Sarkin Hausawa Institution in Ibadan 1914-1993. AFRICAN NOTES Vol. XXI No 1 & 2 1997. Journal of the Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan pp. 43-64
  • [4] Chief Y. Akanni.(aged 64yrs) & Mr. Joseph Oba (aged 65) were both interviewed at Oro 17th August 2000.
  • [5] Chief Ojomu Ajasse-Ipo 4th August 2000. Chief Bakare Owulebaja (aged 80) was interviewed at Esie on 5th August 2000.
  • [6] Ibid.
  • [7] NAI, 09512 VOL. XII. Annual Report on the colony 1949. The organisational pattern was confirmed among Lagos migrants. They were bounded by no form of tribal discipline and owned allegiance to no native authority.
  • [8] Alhaji Agbabiaka Yakubu (aged 90yrs) & Baba Adini Sule Alaga Ile Onikoyi Oro (aged 87) were interviewed at Oro 9th August 2000.
  • [9] Fakeye, J. O. interview 21st August 2000. Also Alhaji Kareem Alogbo (aged 68) was interviewed at Esie on 10th August 2000 and December 2004.
  • [10] Ibid.
  • [11] Ibid.
  • [12] NAI, COMCOL I- 797/1 Vol. I, Census of Beggars, NAI, COMCOL I 12/s. 12 1934-1937 Pp. 387 & 390, NAI, 1016, Vols. III & IV. Undesirables in Lagos Township and the suburbs, Repatriation of – 1937-52.
  • [13] NAI, 248s/S.178. Oro Progressive Union in a letter dated 28th November 1953, informed the Administrator of the Colony of the inauguration of the union on 22nd November 1953. Membership was said to have opened to all indigenes of Oro with good behaviour, depicting the moralising undertone of the ethnic unions.
  • [14] Ibid
  • [15] Adrian, J.P. Choice, Class and Conflict: A Study of Southern Nigeria Factory Workers (Lagos, The Harvest Press) 1979 p. 35
  • [16] Alhaji Owolewa Interviewed 15th August 2000.
  • [17] Prof. Afolayan. Interviewed 30th August 2000.
  • [18] Alhaji Owolewa Salman. Interviewed 15th August 2000.
  • [19] Chief Joseph Oyinloye and Joseph Aransiola of Iludun Alhaji Owolewa of Omu-Aran, Alh. Karimu Famous interviewed 30th & 15th August 2000
  • [20] Banton, M., Adaptation and Integration in the Social System of Temne Immigration in Freetown. AFRICA: Journal of International Africa Institute VOL. XXVI Jan. 1956 No 1 p. 354.
  • [21] Ibid.
  • [22] Ibid. p. 355.
  • [23] Even when census data is available, it is often difficult to get accurate information on Igbomina population in Lagos at this time. They were often classified as Ilorin along with other Yoruba from the province such the Ibolo and Ekiti.
  • [24] Interview conducted at Lagos and Igbominaland shows that many Igbomina migrants got married to Ijebus, including one of the principal informants in this research, Pa. Fakeye at Esie. The socio-cultural life exhibited during festivals, weddings and naming ceremonies bears close similarity to Lagos social life.
  • [25] Osoba, S.O. “The Phenomenon of …” p. 536.
  • [26] Guennec-Coppens F., Social and Cultural Integration: A Case Study of the East Africa Hadrauss in AFRICA VOL. 59 No.2 1989 pp. 185-195.
  • [27] Crytal, D. (ed.). The Cambridge Encyclopaedia 4th Edition (Cambridge University Press 2000)
  • [28] Beazley, M. Joy of Knowledge Encyclopaedia. (London, Heinemann Educational Books Nig. Ltd 1976).
  • [29] Bray, S.S. “Incursion” Microsoft Student 2007 (DVD) Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation 2006.
  • [30] Ibid.
  • [31] Lee, A.M. (ed) Principles of Sociology. (New York, Barnes& Noble 1969)
  • [32] Guennec-Coppens, F., Social and Cultural Integration: a case study of East African Hadramis, in AFRICA VOL. 59, No 2, 1989 p. 185
  • [33] Amin, S. Modern Migration in West Africa… p. 115
  • [34] Mann K., Marriage choice Among Educated Africa Elites in Lagos Colony 1880-1915. The International Journal of African Historical Studies VOL. 14, 1981, No 2, p. 203
  • [35] Ibid p. 204
  • [36] Amin, S.(ed): Modern Migration… Amin, S (ed); Modern Migration in West Africa (Studies presented and discussed at the 11th International Africa Seminar at Dakar, April 1972 (London, OUP 1974). p. 118
  • [37] Ilaburu means an Ila person with his long tail. All Igbomina migrants in Lagos were called Ila in the early days of migration because of the early migration and predominance of Ila group in term of number.
  • [38] Chief Ojomu Interviewed 4th August 2000 & Alhaji Suleiman Alarape of Ajasse Lagos based businessman interviewed in Lagos on 13th Sept’ 2000.
  • [39] Fakeye, J. O. Interview and Chief Bakare Owulebaja (aged 80) Lagos based businessman interviewed at Esie 21st August 2000.
  • [40] Interview of Prof. Afolayan 30th August 2000 & Chief Gabriel Abikoye (aged 68) Lagos based businessman interviewed in Lagos 9th Sept’ 2000.
  • [41] Amin, S.(ed): Modern Migration… p. 115.
  • [42] Fakeye, J.O. interviewed 21st August 2000.
  • [43] Stark, R. Sociology (California, 1987) p. 39.
  • [44] Ibid.
  • [45] Pa. Noah Oyinloye Bankole of Omu-Aran & Prince Gabriel Aroyehun (aged 73) Lagos based businessman, interviewed 16th & 3rd Sept’ 20000 respectively
  • [46] Ibid.
  • [47] Ibid.
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