Wastewater treatment technologies
Languages of publication
The article presents an application of multi-criteria analysis for selection of the best treatment technology and the best technical solution to the running of a large and a small wastewater treatment plant. The calculations performed for two plant capacities and for various effluent standards are based on a compromise programming method. The effluent standards considered for the smaller plant are only BOD5, COD and TSS, while for the larger plant also nitrogen and phosphorus. For each plant’s capacity, three different treatment technologies are analyzed. The analyzed technologies included biofilters, continuous and cyclic activated sludge, rotating biological contactors and natural treatment methods. The selection of the best technology is done with a define set of sustainability criteria that can be easily modified and adjusted to specific local conditions. The proposed method can be used for selection of the best treatment technology and the most appropriate technical solution from a sustainability standpoint, at the stage of wastewater system planning and designing, as well as for evaluation of already operating plants.
- Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, West Pomeranian University of Technology, 17 Słowackiego Str., 71-434 Szczecin, Poland
- Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, 13 Waska Street, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland
- Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, 13 Waska Street, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland, email@example.com
- The Board of Marine Ports of Szczecin and Świnoujście S.A., Environment and Health Research Laboratory, 7 Bytomska Street, 70-603 Szczecin, Poland
-  Ackermann GE, Schwaiger J, Negele RD, Fent K (2002). Effects of long-term nonylphenol exposure on gonadal development and biomarkers of estrogenicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol 60(3-4): 203-221
-  An L, Hu J, Yang M (2008). Evaluation of estrogenicity of sewage effluent and reclaimed water using vitellogenin as a biomarker. Environ Toxicol Chem 27(1): 154-158
-  Aragonés-Beltrána P, Mendoza-Rocab J A , Bes-Piáa A et al. (2009). Application of multi-criteria decision analysis to jar-test results for chemicals selection in the physical–chemical treatment of textile wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials 164 (2009), pp. 288-295.
-  Balkema, A., Weijers S., and Lambert F. (1998). On Methodologies for Comparison of Wastewater Treatment Systems with Respect to Sustainability. Conference Options for Closed Water Systems, 11-13 March, 1998, Wageningen, Netherlands
-  Bila D, Montalvao AF, Azevedo DdA, Dezotti M (2007). Estrogenic activity removal of 17β-estradiol by ozonation and identification of by-products. Chemosphere 69(5): 736-746
-  Bjerregaard LB, Madsen AH, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P (2006). Gonad histology and vitellogenin concentrations in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Danish streams impacted by sewage effluent. Ecotoxicology 15(3): 315-327
-  Bjerregaard P, Hansen PR, Larsen KJ, Erratico C, Korsgaard B, Holbech H (2008). Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations. Environ Toxicol Chem 27(11): 2387-2396.
-  Bolong N, Ismail A, Salim MR, Matsuura T (2009). A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239(1): 229-246
-  Brechet T., Tulkens H. (2009). Beyond BAT: Selecting optimal combinations of available techniques, with an example from the limestone industry. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009), pp. 1790-1801.
-  Copeland PA, Sumpter JP, Walker TK, Croft M (1986). Vitellogenin levels in male and female rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri richardson) at various stages of the reproductive cycle. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B Comp Biochem 83(2): 487-493
-  Daniszewski P., Falkowski J. 2001. Communal sewage as a source of phosphorus for plants used for sewage treatment by water-plant method. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis. Agricultura No. 89, pp. 25-28.
-  Daniszewski P., Falkowski J. 2001. Communal sewage as a source of nitrogen for some plants used for sewage treatment by water-plant method. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis. Agricultura No. 89, pp. 21-24.
-  Daniszewski, P., Falkowski, J. 2002. Use of colonizing organisms for communal sewage treatment by water-plant method. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych No.: 484, pp. 125-129.
-  Georgopoulou, E., Hontou, V., Gakis et al. (2008). BEAsT: a decision-support tool for assessing the environmental benefits and the economic attractiveness of best available techniques in industry. Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 16, No 3.
-  Jobling S (1998). Natural and anthropogenic environmental oestrogens: the scientific basis for risk assessment. Pure Appl Chem 70(9):1805-1827
-  Kime DE, Nash JP, Scott AP (1999). Vitellogenesis as a biomarker of reproductive disruption by xenobiotics. Aquaculture 177(1-4): 345-352
-  Lange R, Hutchinson TH, Croudace CP, Siegmund F, Schweinfurth H, Hampe P, et al. (2001). Effects of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the life-cycle of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environ Toxicol Chem 20(6): 1216-1227.
-  Pickering A, Pottinger T, Carragher J (1989). Differences in the sensitivity of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, to physiological doses of cortisol. J Fish Biol 34(5): 757-768.
-  Purdom CE, Hardiman PA, Bye VVJ, Eno NC, Tyler CR, Sumpter JP (1994). Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works. Chem Ecol 8(4), 275-285.
-  Routledge EJ, Sheahan D, Desbrow C, Brighty GC, Waldock M, Sumpter JP (1998). Identification of estrogenic chemicals in STW effluent. 2. In vivo responses in trout and roach. Environ Sci Technol 32(11): 1559-1565
-  Schmidt H, Bernet D, Wahli T, Meier W, Burkhardt-Holm P (1999). Active biomonitoring with brown trout and rainbow trout in diluted sewage plant effluents. J Fish Biol 54(3): 585-596
-  Stalter D, Magdeburg A, Wagner M, Oehlmann J (2011). Ozonation and activated carbon treatment of sewage effluents: removal of endocrine activity and cytotoxicity. Water Res 45(3): 1015-1024
-  Stalter D, Magdeburg A, Weil M, Knacker T, Oehlmann J (2010). Toxication or detoxication? In vivo toxicity assessment of ozonation as advanced wastewater treatment with the rainbow trout. Water Res 44(2): 439-448
-  Sumpter JP (1998). Xenoendocrine disrupters—environmental impacts. Toxicol Lett 102: 337-342
-  Sumpter JP, Jobling S (1995). Vitellogenesis as a biomarker for estrogenic contamination of the aquatic environment. Environ Health Perspect 103 (Suppl 7): 173
-  Triebskorn R, Amler K, Blaha L, Gallert C, Giebner S, Güde H, et al. (2013). SchussenAktivplus: reduction of micropollutants and of potentially pathogenic bacteria for further water quality improvement of the river Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, Germany. Environ Sci Eur 25(1): 1-9
-  Triebskorn R, Hetzenauer H (2012). Micropollutants in three tributaries of Lake Constance, Argen, Schussen and Seefelder Aach: a literature review. Environ Sci Eur 24(1): 1-24
-  Tyler CR, van Aerle R, Hutchinson TH, Maddix S, Trip H (1999). An in vivo testing system for endocrine disruptors in fish early life stages using induction of vitellogenin. Environ Toxicol Chem 18(2): 337-347
-  Sankar Ganesh, R. Lawrence Xavier, M. Nagarajan, P. Sundaramoorthy, Physico-Chemical Properties of Sri Sanishwaran Temple Pond Water, Tirunallar. World Scientific News 21 (2015) 1-11
-  Sandeep Kumar, G. S. Gill, Santosh, Spatial Distribution of Rainfall with Elevation in Satluj River Basin: 1986-2010, Himachal Pradesh, India. World Scientific News 19 (2015) 1-15
Publication order reference