Hydraulic Fracturing; Environmental Issue
Languages of publication
Environment is the integrated system, each and every factor of which is dependent on the other. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. According to the World Resource Center, coastal habitats alone account for approximately 1/3 of all marine biological productivity, and estuarine ecosystems (i.e., salt marshes, seagrasses, mangrove forests) are among the most productive regions on the planet. In addition, other marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, provide food and shelter to the highest levels of marine diversity in the world. Marine ecosystems usually have a large biodiversity and are therefore thought to have a good resistance against invasive species. However, exceptions have been observed, and the mechanisms responsible in determining the success of an invasion are not yet clear. Changes among the factors an any ecosystem are permissible up to some extent. Induced hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing, also commonly known as fracking or fraccing) is a mining technique in which a liquid (in most cases water) is mixed with sand and chemicals and the resultant mixture injected at high pressure into a wellbore. This creates small fractures in the deep rock formations, typically less than 1mm wide, along which gas, petroleum and brine may migrate to the well. Hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, then small grains of proppant (sand or aluminium oxide) hold these fractures open once the rock achieves equilibrium. The technique is very common in wells for shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, and coal seam gas and hard rock wells. This well stimulation is usually conducted once in the life of the well and greatly enhances fluid removal and well productivity, but there has been an increasing trend towards multiple hydraulic fracturing as production declines. The first experimental use of hydraulic fracturing was in 1947, and the first commercially successful applications were in 1949. As of 2012, 2.5 million hydraulic fracturing jobs have been performed on oil and gas wells worldwide, more than one million of them in the United States. Proponents of hydraulic fracturing point to the economic benefits from the vast amounts of formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons the process can extract. Opponents of hydraulic fracturing point to environmental risks, including contamination of ground water, depletion of fresh water, contamination of the air, noise pollution, the migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals to the surface, surface contamination from spills and flow-back, and the possible health effects of these. There are increases in seismic activity, mostly associated with deep injection disposal of flowback and produced brine from hydraulically fractured wells. For these reasons hydraulic fracturing has come under international scrutiny, with some countries protecting it, and others suspending or banning it. Some of those countries, including most notably the United Kingdom, have recently lifted their bans, choosing to focus on regulation instead of outright prohibition. The European Union is in the process of applying regulation to permit this to take place.
-  Charlez, Philippe A. (1997). Rock Mechanics: Petroleum Applications. Paris: Editions Technip. p. 239. ISBN 9782710805861. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  "Fracking legislation, California", The LA times (editorial), 2013-05-26
-  King, George E (2012), Hydraulic fracturing 101 (PDF), Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 152596.
-  Staff. "State by state maps of hydraulic fracturing in US.". Fractracker.org. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
-  IEA (29 May 2012). Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas. World Energy Outlook Special Report on Unconventional Gas (PDF). OECD. pp. 18-27.
-  Hillard Huntington et al. EMF 26: Changing the Game? Emissions and Market Implications of New Natural Gas Supplies Report. Stanford University. Energy Modeling Forum, 2013.
-  Brown, Valerie J. (February 2007). "Industry Issues: Putting the Heat on Gas". Environmental Health Perspectives (US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) 115 (2): A76. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a76. PMC 1817691. PMID 17384744. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
-  Kim, Won-Young 'Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio', Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth.
-  Jared Metzker (7 August 2013). "Govt, Energy Industry Accused of Suppressing Fracking Dangers". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
-  Patel, Tara (31 March 2011). "The French Public Says No to 'Le Fracking'". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  Patel, Tara (4 October 2011). "France to Keep Fracking Ban to Protect Environment, Sarkozy Says". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  "Commission recommendation on minimum principles for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing (2014/70/EU)". Official Journal of the European Union. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
-  Fjaer, E. (2008). "Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing". Petroleum related rock mechanics. Developments in petroleum science (2nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-444-50260-5. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  Price, N. J.; Cosgrove, J. W. (1990). Analysis of geological structures. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-0-521-31958-4. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
-  Manthei, G.; Eisenblätter, J.; Kamlot, P. (2003). "Stress measurement in salt mines using a special hydraulic fracturing borehole tool" (PDF). In Natau, Fecker & Pimentel. Geotechnical Measurements and Modelling. pp. 355-360. ISBN 90-5809-603-3. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
-  Zoback, M.D. (2007). Reservoir geomechanics. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780521146197. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
-  Laubach, S. E.; Reed, R. M.; Olson, J. E.; Lander, R. H.; Bonnell, L. M. (2004). "Coevolution of crack-seal texture and fracture porosity in sedimentary rocks: cathodoluminescence observations of regional fractures". Journal of Structural Geology (Elsevier) 26 (5): 967-982. Bibcode: 2004JSG....26..967L. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2003.08.019. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
-  Sibson, R. H.; Moore, J.; Rankin, A. H. (1975). "Seismic pumping--a hydrothermal fluid transport mechanism". Journal of the Geological Society (London: Geological Society) 131 (6): 653-659. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.131.6.0653. (subscription required). Retrieved 5 November 2011.
-  Gill, R. (2010). Igneous rocks and processes: a practical guide. John Wiley and Sons. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-4443-3065-6. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
-  "Acid fracturing"
-  Montgomery, Carl T.; Smith, Michael B. (December 2010). "Hydraulic fracturing. History of an enduring technology" (PDF). JPT Online (Society of Petroleum Engineers): 26-41. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
-  Energy Institute (February 2012) (PDF). Fact-Based Regulation for Environmental Protection in Shale Gas Development (Report). University of Texas at Austin. http://cewc.colostate.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ei_shale_gas_regulation120215.pdf. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
-  A. J. Stark, A. Settari, J. R. Jones, Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing of High Permeability Gas Wells to Reduce Non-darcy Skin Effects, Petroleum Society of Canada, Annual Technical Meeting, Jun 8-10, 1998, Calgary, Alberta.[dead link]
-  Mader, Detlef (1989). Hydraulic Proppant Fracturing and Gravel Packing. Elsevier. pp. 173-174; 202. ISBN 9780444873521.
-  Ben E. Law and Charles W. Spencer, 1993, "Gas in tight reservoirs-an emerging major source of energy," in David G. Howell (ed.), The Future of Energy Gasses, US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1570, p. 233-252.
-  C.R. Fast, G.B. Holman, and R. J. Covlin, "The application of massive hydraulic fracturing to the tight Muddy 'J' Formation, Wattenberg Field, Colorado," in Harry K. Veal, (ed.), Exploration Frontiers of the Central and Southern Rockies (Denver: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1977) 293-300.
-  Robert Chancellor, "Mesaverde hydraulic fracture stimulation, northern Piceance Basin - progress report," in Harry K. Veal, (ed.), Exploration Frontiers of the Central and Southern Rockies (Denver: Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1977), 285-291.
-  C.E Bell and others, Effective diverting in horizontal wells in the Austin Chalk, Society of Petroleum Engineers conference paper, 1993.[dead link]
-  Robbins K. (2013). Awakening the Slumbering Giant: How Horizontal Drilling Technology Brought the Endangered Species Act to Bear on Hydraulic Fracturing. Case Western Reserve Law Review.
-  US Dept. of Energy, How is shale gas produced?, Apr. 2013.
-  United States National Research Council, Committee to Review the Gas Research Institute's Research, Development and Demonstration Program, Gas Research Institute (1989). A review of the management of the Gas Research Institute. National Academies
-  "US Government Role in Shale Gas Fracking: An Overview".
-  SPE production & operations 20. Society of Petroleum Engineers. 2005. p. 87.
-  The Breakthrough Institute. Interview with Dan Steward, former Mitchell Energy Vice President. December 2011.
-  Zuckerman, Gregory. "How fracking billionaires built their empires". Quartz. The Atlantic Media Company. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
-  Wasley, Andrew (1 March 2013) On the frontline of Poland's fracking rush The Guardian, Retrieved 3 March 2013
-  (7 August 2012) JKX Awards Fracking Contract for Ukrainian Prospect Natural Gas Europe, Retrieved 3 March 2013
-  (18 February 2013) Turkey's shale gas hopes draw growing interest Reuters, Retrieved 3 March 2013.
-  "Hydraulic fracturing research study" (PDF). EPA. June 2010. EPA/600/F-10/002. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
-  Ground Water Protection Council; ALL Consulting (April 2009) (PDF). Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer (Report). DOE Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory. pp. 56-66. DE-FG26-04NT15455. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPreports/Shale_Gas_Primer_2009.pdf. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
-  Penny, Glenn S.; Conway, Michael W.; Lee, Wellington (June 1985). "Control and Modeling of Fluid Leakoff During Hydraulic Fracturing". Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) 37 (6): 1071-1081. doi:10.2118/12486-PA. Retrieved 2012-05-10.[dead link]
-  Arthur, J. Daniel; Bohm, Brian; Coughlin, Bobbi Jo; Layne, Mark (2008) (PDF). Hydraulic Fracturing Considerations for Natural Gas Wells of the Fayetteville Shale (Report). ALL Consulting. p. 10. http://www.aogc.state.ar.us/ALL%20FayettevilleFrac%20FINAL.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
-  Chilingar, George V.; Robertson, John O.; Kumar, Sanjay (1989). Surface Operations in Petroleum Production 2. Elsevier. pp. 143-152. ISBN 9780444426772.
-  Love, Adam H. (December 2005). "Fracking: The Controversy Over its Safety for the Environment". Johnson Wright, Inc. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
-  "Hydraulic Fracturing". University of Colorado Law School. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
-  Economides, Michael J. (2000). Reservoir stimulation. J. Wiley. p. P-2. ISBN 9780471491927.
-  Wan Renpu (2011). Advanced Well Completion Engineering. Gulf Professional Publishing. p. 424. ISBN 9780123858689.
-  Andrews, Anthony et al. (30 October 2009) (PDF). Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and Policy Issues (Report). Congressional Research Service. pp. 7; 23. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40894.pdf. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  Ram Narayan (August 8, 2012). "From Food to Fracking: Guar Gum and International Regulation". RegBlog. University of Pennsylvania Law School. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
-  Hartnett-White, K. (2011). The Fracas About Fracking- Low Risk, High Reward, but the EPA is Against it (PDF). National Review Online. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
-  Freeing Up Energy. Hydraulic Fracturing: Unlocking America's Natural Gas Resources (PDF). American Petroleum Institute. 2010-07-19. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
-  Brainard, Curtis (June 2013). "The Future of Energy". Popular Science Magazine. p. 59. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
-  "CARBO ceramics". Retrieved 2011.
-  (PDF) Chemicals Used in Hydraulic Fracturing (Report). Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives. April 18, 2011. http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Hydraulic%20Fracturing%20Report%204.18.11.pdf.
-  ALL Consulting (June 2012) (PDF). The Modern Practices of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Focus on Canadian Resources (Report). Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. http://www.capp.ca/getdoc.aspx?DocId=210903&DT=NTV. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
-  Reis, John C. (1976). Environmental Control in Petroleum Engineering. Gulf Professional Publishers.
-  (PDF) Radiation Protection and the Management of Radioactive Waste in the Oil and Gas Industry (Report). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2003. pp. 39–40. http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1171_web.pdf. Retrieved 20 May 2012. "Beta emitters, including 3H and 14C, may be used when it is feasible to use sampling techniques to detect the presence of the radiotracer, or when changes in activity concentration can be used as indicators of the properties of interest in the system. Gamma emitters, such as 46Sc, 140La, 56Mn, 24Na, 124Sb, 192Ir, 99Tcm, 131I, 110Agm, 41Ar and 133Xe are used extensively because of the ease with which they can be identified and measured. ... In order to aid the detection of any spillage of solutions of the 'soft' beta emitters, they are sometimes spiked with a short half-life gamma emitter such as 82Br".
-  Jack E. Whitten, Steven R. Courtemanche, Andrea R. Jones, Richard E. Penrod, and David B. Fogl (Division of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards) (June 2000).
-  "Consolidated Guidance About Materials Licenses: Program-Specific Guidance About Well Logging, Tracer, and Field Flood Study Licenses (NUREG-1556, Volume 14)". US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 19 April 2012. "labeled Frac Sand...Sc-46, Br-82, Ag-110m, Sb-124, Ir-192"
-  Bennet, Les, et al. "The Source for Hydraulic Fracture Characterization" (PDF). Oilfield Review (Schlumberger) (Winter 2005/2006): 42-57. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
-  Fehler, Michael C. (1989). "Stress Control of seismicity patterns observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal energy site, New Mexico". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts. 3 26. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(89)91971-2. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
-  Le Calvez, Joel (2007). "Real-time microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatment: A tool to improve completion and reservoir management". SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference.
-  Cipolla, Craig (2010). "Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring to Reservoir Simulation: Maximizing Value". SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
-  Seale, Rocky (July-August 2007). "Open hole completion systems enables multi-stage fracturing and stimulation along horizontal wellbores" (PDF). Drilling Contractor (Fracturing stimulation ed.). Retrieved October 1, 2009.
-  "Completion Technologies". EERC. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
-  "Energy from Shale". 2011.
-  Mooney, Chris (2011). "The Truth About Fracking". Scientific American 305 (305): 80-85. Bibcode:2011SciAm.305d..80M. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1111-80.
-  "The Barnett Shale" (PDF). North Keller Neighbors Together. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  David Wethe (19 January 2012). "Like Fracking? You'll Love 'Super Fracking'". Businessweek. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
-  "Production Decline of a Natural Gas Well Over Time". Geology.com. The Geology Society of America. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
-  Gidley, John L. (1989). Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing. SPE Monograph 12. SPE. ISBN 9781555630201.
-  Ching H. Yew (1997). Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing. Gulf Professional Publishing. ISBN 9780884154747.
-  Banks, David; Odling, N. E.; Skarphagen, H.; Rohr-Torp, E. (May 1996). "Permeability and stress in crystalline rocks". Terra Nova 8 (3): 223-235. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.1996.tb00751.x.
-  Brown, Edwin Thomas (2007) . Block Caving Geomechanics (2nd ed.). Indooroopilly, Queensland: Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, UQ. ISBN 978-0-9803622-0-6. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  Frank, U.; Barkley, N. (February 1995). Remediation of low permeability subsurface formations by fracturing enhancement of soil vapor extraction. "Soil Remediation: Application of Innovative and Standard Technologies". Journal of Hazardous Materials 40 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1016/0304-3894(94)00069-S. ISSN 0304-3894. (subscription required)
-  Bell, Frederic Gladstone (2004). Engineering Geology and Construction. Taylor & Francis. p. 670. ISBN 9780415259392.
-  Aamodt, R. Lee; Kuriyagawa, Michio (1983). "Measurement of Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure in Crystalline Rock". Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. National Academies. p. 139.
-  "Geothermal Technologies Program: How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works". eere.energy.gov. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
-  Miller, Bruce G. (2005). Coal Energy Systems. Sustainable World Series. Academic Press. p. 380. ISBN 9780124974517.
-  Waltz, James; Decker, Tim L (1981). "Hydro-fracturing offers many benefits", Johnson Driller's Journal (2nd quarter): 4-9.
-  Williamson, WH (1982). "The use of hydraulic techniques to improve the yield of bores in fractured rocks", Groundwater in Fractured Rock, Conference Series (5), Australian Water Resources Council.
-  Less, C; Andersen, N (Feb 1994). "Hydrofracture: state of the art in South Africa", Applied Hydrogeology: 59-63.
-  National Petroleum Council, Prudent Development: Realizing the Potential of North America’s Abundant Natural Gas and Oil Resources, September 15, 2011.
-  IHS Global Insight, Measuring the Economic and Energy Impacts of Proposals to Regulate Hydraulic Fracturing, 2009.
-  Asian Refiners Get Squeezed by U.S. Energy Boom, Wall Street Journal, Jan. 1, 2014.
-  Spencer T, Sartor O, Mathieu M "Unconventional wisdom: an economic analysis of US shale gas and implications for the EU", IDDRI, Paris, France, February 2014.
-  Efstathlou, J. "Taxpayers Pay as Fracking Trucks Overwhelm Rural Cow Paths." Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 15 May 2012. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-05-15/taxpayers-pay-as-fracking-trucks-overwhelm-rural-cow-paths#p1
-  INTEK, Inc. "Review of Emerging Resources. U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays". U.S. Energy Information Administration, Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays. December 2010.
-  University of Southern California. March 2013. "The Monterey Shale and California's Economic Future". USC Price School of Public Policy.
-  Hughes, David J. "Drilling California: A Reality Check on the Monterey Shale". Post Carbon Institute and Physicians Scientists & Engineers for Healthy Energy. December 2013.
-  Jaquet, Jeffrey. "Energy Boomtowns and Natural Gas: Implications for Marcellus Shale Local Governments and Rural Communities.". The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development. Paper No. 43. January 2009.
-  Energy Boomtown & Natural Gas: Implications for Marcellus Shale Local Governments and Rural Communities. NERCRD Rural Development Paper No. 43. Jan. 2009. 66 pp. Web. 6 April 2014. http://energy.wilkes.edu/PDFFiles/Issues/Energy%20Boomtowns%20and%20Natural%20Gas.pdf
-  Kay, David. The Economic Impact of Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling: What Have We Learned? What are the Limitations? The Economic Consequences of Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction: Key Issues. CaRDI Reports. Issue 14. Pp. 5-6. Sept. 2011. http://www.greenchoices.cornell.edu/downloads/development/shale/Economic_Consequences.pdf
-  Christopherson, Susan. "The Economic Consequences of Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction: Key Issues". Cornell University Department of City and Regional Planning. CaRDI Reports. Issue Number 14, September 2011.
-  b Fracking Growth - Estimating the Economic Impact of Shale Oil and Gas Development in the US, Fetzer, Thiemo (2014).
-  Dutch Disease or Agglomeration? The Local Economic Effects of Natural Resource Booms in Modern America, Alcott and Kenniston (2013).
-  The housing market impacts of shale gas development”, by Lucija Muehlenbachs, Elisheba Spiller and Christopher Timmins. NBER Working Paper 19796, January 2014.
-  "The Social Cost of Fracking". Food and Water Watch. Sept. 2013. Web. 18 Mar 2014. http://documents.foodandwaterwatch.org/doc/Social_Costs_of_Fracking.pdf
-  IEA (2011). World Energy Outlook 2011. OECD. pp. 91; 164. ISBN 9789264124134.
-  Efstathiou Jr., Jim; Greiling Keane, Angela (13 August 2013). "North Dakota Oil Boom Seen Adding Costs for Rail Safety". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
-  Gebrekidan, Selam (11 October 2013). "Corrosion may have led to North Dakota pipeline leak: regulator". Reuters. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
-  Fernandez, John Michael; Gunter, Matthew. Hydraulic Fracturing: Environmentally Friendly Practices (PDF). Houston Advanced Research Center. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
-  Biello, David (30 March 2010). "Natural gas cracked out of shale deposits may mean the U.S. has a stable supply for a century – but at what cost to the environment and human health?". Scientific American. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
-  b Schmidt, Charles (1 August 2011). "Blind Rush? Shale Gas Boom Proceeds Amid Human Health Questions". Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (8): a348-a353. doi:10.1289/ehp.119-a348. PMC 3237379.
-  "DISH, TExas Exposure Investigation". Texas DSHS. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  b Logan, Jeffrey (2012) (PDF). Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity (Report). Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/55538.pdf. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Ridlington, Elizabeth; John Rumpler (October 3, 2013). "Fracking by the numbers". Environment America.
-  "The Importance of Accurate Data". True Blue Natural Gas. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent N.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H. (16 September 2013). "Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304880110. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
-  Abdalla, Charles W.; Drohan, Joy R. (2010) (PDF). Water Withdrawals for Development of Marcellus Shale Gas in Pennsylvania. Introduction to Pennsylvania’s Water Resources (Report). The Pennsylvania State University. http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/ua460.pdf. Retrieved 16 September 2012. "Hydrofracturing a horizontal Marcellus well may use 4 to 8 million gallons of water, typically within about 1 week. However, based on experiences in other major U.S. shale gas fields, some Marcellus wells may need to be hydrofractured several times over their productive life (typically five to twenty years or more)".
-  Arthur, J. Daniel; Uretsky, Mike; Wilson, Preston (May 5–6, 2010). "Water Resources and Use for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region" (PDF). Meeting of the American Institute of Professional Geologists. Pittsburgh: ALL Consulting. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
-  Cothren, Jackson (PDF). Modeling the Effects of Non-Riparian Surface Water Diversions on Flow Conditions in the Little Red Watershed (Report). U. S. Geological Survey, Arkansas Water Science Center Arkansas Water Resources Center, American Water Resources Association, Arkansas State Section Fayetteville Shale Symposium 2012. p. 12. http://ar.water.usgs.gov/Fayetteville_Shale/abstracts.pdf. Retrieved 16 September 2012. "...each well requires between 3 and 7 million gallons of water for hydraulic fracturing and the number of wells is expected to grow in the future".
-  Faucon, Benoît (17 September 2012). "Shale-Gas Boom Hits Eastern Europe". WSJ.com. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
-  John Upton (August 15, 2013). "Fracking company wants to build new pipeline – for water". Grist. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
-  Urbina, Ian (30 December 2011). "Hunt for Gas Hits Fragile Soil, and South Africans Fear Risks". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2012. "Covering much of the roughly 800 miles between Johannesburg and Cape Town, this arid expanse – its name [Karoo] means "thirsty land" – sees less rain in some parts than the Mojave Desert."
-  Janco, David F. (3 January 2008). PADEP Determination Letter No. 352 Determination Letter acquired by the Scranton Times-Tribune via Right-To-Know Law request. Order: Atlas Miller 42 and 43 gas wells; Aug 2007 investigation; supplied temporary buffalo for two springs, ordered to permanently replace supplies (Report). Scranton Times-Tribune. http://scrantontimestribune.com/waterproject/352.pdf. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
-  Janco, David F. (1 February 2007). PADEP Determination Letter No. 970. Diminution of Snow Shoe Borough Authority Water Well No. 2; primary water source for about 1,000 homes and businesses in and around the borough; contested by Range Resources. Determination Letter acquired by the Scranton Times-Tribune via Right-To-Know Law request. (Report). Scranton Times-Tribune. http://scrantontimestribune.com/waterproject/970.pdf. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
-  Staff (16 June 2013). "Fracking fuels water battles". Politico. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
-  Texas Water Report: Going Deeper for the Solution Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. Retrieved 2/11/14.
-  "Skipping the Water in Fracking."
-  Drought and the water–energy nexus in Texas Environmental Research Letters. Retrieved 2/11/14.
-  Colborn, Theo; Kwiatkowski, Carol; Schultz, Kim; Bachran, Mary (2011). "Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective" (PDF). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: an International Journal (Taylor & Francis) 17(5): 1039-1056. doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662.
-  Kiparsky, Michael; Hein, Jayni Foley (April 2013). "Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California: A Wastewater and Water Quality Perspective" (PDF). University of California Center for Law, Energy, and the Environment. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
-  , Environmental Protection Agency
-  , The New York Times
-  "Waste water (flowback)from hydraulic fracturing" (PDF). Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
-  Detrow, Scott (9 October 2012). "Perilous Pathways: How Drilling Near An Abandoned Well Produced a Methane Geyser". StateImpact Penn¬syl¬va¬nia (NPR). Retrieved 29 June 2013.
-  Arthur, J. Daniel; Langhus, Bruce; Alleman, David (2008) (PDF). An overview of modern shale gas development in the United States (Report). ALL Consulting. p. 21. http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/pdf/20100210093849_large.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
-  Hopey, Don (1 March 2011). "Gas drillers recycling more water, using fewer chemicals". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Litvak, Anya (21 August 2012). "Marcellus flowback recycling reaches 90 percent in SWPA.". Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Moniz, Ernest J. et al. (June 2011) (PDF). The Future of Natural Gas: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study (Report). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://mitei.mit.edu/system/files/NaturalGas_Report.pdf. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
-  Osborn, Stephen G.; Vengosh, Avner; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B. (2011-05-17). "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(20): 8172-8176. doi:10.1073/pnas.1100682108. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
-  "Gasland Correction Document". Colorado Oil & Gas Conservation Commission. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
-  Urbina, Ian (26 February 2011). "Regulation Lax as Gas Wells' Tainted Water Hits Rivers". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  "Duke Study finds Methane gas in well water near fracking sites" May 9, 2011 Philly Inquirer
-  Molofsky, L. J.; Connor, J. A.; Shahla, K. F.; Wylie, A. S.; Wagner, T. (December 5, 2011). "Methane in Pennsylvania Water Wells Unrelated to Marcellus Shale Fracturing". Oil and Gas Journal (Pennwell Corporation) 109(49): 54-67.
-  Weinhold, Bob (19 September 2012). "Unknown Quantity: Regulating Radionuclides in Tap Water". Environmental Health Perspectives. NIEHS, NIH. Retrieved 11 February 2012. "Examples of human activities that may lead to radionuclide exposure include mining, milling, and processing of radio¬active substances; wastewater releases from the hydraulic fracturing of oil and natural gas wells... Mining and hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", can concentrate levels of uranium (as well as radium, radon, and thorium) in wastewater...".
-  Urbina, Ian (1 March 2011). "Drilling Down: Wastewater Recycling No Cure-All in Gas Process". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  "How is hydraulic fracturing related to earthquakes and tremors?". USGS. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
-  Begley, Sharon; McAllister, Edward (12 July 2013). "News in Science: Earthquakes may trigger fracking tremors". ABC Science (Reuters). Retrieved 17 December 2013.
-  Zoback, Mark; Kitasei, Saya; Copithorne, Brad (July 2010) (PDF). Addressing the Environmental Risks from Shale Gas Development (Report). Worldwatch Institute. p. 9. http://efdsystems.org/Portals/25/Hydraulic%20Fracturing%20Paper%20-%20World%20Watch.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
-  "Ohio Quakes Probably Triggered by Waste Disposal Well, Say Seismologists" (Press release). Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  Rachel Maddow, Terrence Henry (7 August 2012). Rachel Maddow Show: Fracking waste messes with Texas (video). MSNBC. Event occurs at 9:24 - 10:35.
-  "Shale gas fracking: MPs call for safety inquiry after tremors". BBC News. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  "Fracking tests near Blackpool 'likely cause' of tremors". BBC News. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  de Pater, C.J.; Baisch, S. (2 November 2011) (PDF). Geomechanical Study of Bowland Shale Seismicity (Report). Cuadrilla Resources. http://www.cuadrillaresources.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Geomechanical-Study-of-Bowland-Shale-Seismicity_02-11-11.pdf. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
-  Williams, Laurence, John "Framing fracking: public responses to potential unconventional fossil fuel exploitation in the North of England", Durham thesis, Durham University, 2014.
-  Soraghan, Mike (29 March 2012). "'Remarkable' spate of man-made quakes linked to drilling, USGS team says". EnergyWire (E&E). Retrieved 2012-11-09.
-  McHaney, Sarah (21 October 2012). "Shale Gas Extraction Brings Local Health Impacts". IPS News (Inter Press Service). Retrieved 2012-10-21.
-  Colborn, Theo; Kwiatkowski, Carol; Schultz, Kim; Bachran, Mary (2011). "Natural gas operations from public health perspective". Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: an International Journal 17(5): 1039-1056. doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662.
-  Banerjee, Neela (16 December 2013). "Hormone-disrupting chemicals found in water at fracking sites. A study of hydraulic fracturing sites in Colorado finds substances that have been linked to infertility, birth defects and cancer.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
-  Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Davis, J. Wade; Hormann, Annette M.; Nagel, Susan C. (March 2014). "Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Activities of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Surface and Ground Water in a Drilling-Dense Region". Endocrinology 155 (3). doi:10.1210/en.2013-1697. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
-  McMahon, Jeff (24 July 2013). "Strange Byproduct Of Fracking Boom: Radioactive Socks". Forbes. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
-  McKenzie, Lisa; Witter, Roxana; Newman, Lee; Adgate, John (2012). "Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources". Science of the Total Environment 424: 79-87. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.018.
-  Nolon, John R.; Polidoro, Victoria (2012). "Hydrofracking: Disturbances Both Geological and Political: Who Decides?" (PDF). The Urban Lawyer 44(3): 1-14. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
-  Negro, Sorrell E. (February 2012). "Fracking Wars: Federal, State, and Local Conflicts over the Regulation of Natural Gas Activities" (PDF). Zoning and Planning Law Report (Thomson Reuters) 35(2): 1-14. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
-  "LOI n° 2011-835 du 13 juillet 2011 visant à interdire l'exploration et l'exploitation des mines d'hydrocarbures liquides ou gazeux par fracturation hydraulique et à abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches comportant des projets ayant recours à cette technique".
-  "Article L 110-1 du Code de l'Environnement"
-  "Fracking ban upheld by French court". BBC. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
-  Moore, Robbie. "Fracking, PR, and the Greening of Gas". The International. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
-  Bakewell, Sally (13 December 2012). "U.K. Government Lifts Ban on Shale Gas Fracking". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
-  Hweshe, Francis (17 September 2012). "South Africa: International Groups Rally Against Fracking, TKAG Claims". West Cape News. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
-  Nicola, Stefan; Andersen, Tino (26 February 2013). "Germany agrees on regulations to allow fracking for shale gas". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
-  Healy, Dave (July 2012) (PDF). Hydraulic Fracturing or 'Fracking': A Short Summary of Current Knowledge and Potential Environmental Impacts (Report). Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.ie/pubs/reports/research/sss/UniAberdeen_FrackingReport.pdf. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
-  Hass, Benjamin (14 August 2012). "Fracking Hazards Obscured in Failure to Disclose Wells". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Soraghan, Mike (13 December 2013). "White House official backs FracFocus as preferred disclosure method". E&E News. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  , Environmental Protection Agency.
-  de Rijke "Hydraulically fractured: unconventional gas and anthropology", Anthropology today, Volume 29, Number 2, April 2013.
-  Goldstein, Kriesky, Pavliakova "Missing from the table: role of the environmental public health community in governmental advisory commission related to the Marcellus Shale Drilling", University of Pittsburgh, in Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 120, Number 4, April 2012.
-  "Vermont Act 152".
-  "Shale Gas Drilling Safety Review Act of 2014".
-  Javers, Eamon (8 Nov 2011). "Oil Executive: Military-Style 'Psy Ops' Experience Applied". CNBC.
-  Phillips, Susan (9 Nov 2011). "'We're Dealing with an Insurgency,' says Energy Company Exec of Fracking Foes". National Public Radio.
-  Palmer, Mike (27 March 2013). "Oil-gas boom spawns Harrison safety talks". Times Leader. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  "Shots fired at W. Pa. gas drilling site". Philadelphia Inquirer. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Detrow, Scott (15 August 2012). "Pipe Bomb Found Near Allegheny County Pipeline". NPR. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
-  Documentary: Gasland (2010). 104 minutes.
-  "Gasland". 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  "Gasland Debunked" (PDF). Energy in Depth. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
-  "Affirming Gasland". July 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
-  COGCC Gasland Correction Document Colorado Department of Natural Resources October 29, 2010.
-  Gilbert, Daniel (7 October 2012). "Matt Damon Fracking Film Lights Up Petroleum Lobby". The Wall Street Journal ((subscription required)). Retrieved 26 December 2012.
-  Gerhardt, Tina (31 December 2012). "Matt Damon Exposes Fracking in Promised Land". The Progressive. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
-  Kickstarter, FrackNation by Ann and Phelim Media LLC, April 6, 2012.
-  The Hollywood Reporter, Mark Cuban's AXS TV Picks Up Pro-Fracking Documentary 'FrackNation', December 17, 2012.
-  Deller, Steven; Schreiber, Andrew (2012). "Mining and Community Economic Growth" (PDF). The Review of Regional Studies 42: 121-141. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
-  Soraghan, Mike (12 March 2012). "Quiet foundation funds the 'anti-fracking' fight". E&E News. Retrieved 27 March 2013. "In our work to oppose fracking, the Park Foundation has simply helped to fuel an army of courageous individuals and NGOs,’ or non-governmental organizations, said Adelaide Park Gomer, foundation president and Park heir, in a speech late last year.".
-  b Urbina, Ian (3 March 2011). "Pressure Limits Efforts to Police Drilling for Gas". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2012. "More than a quarter-century of efforts by some lawmakers and regulators to force the federal government to police the industry better have been thwarted, as E.P.A. studies have been repeatedly narrowed in scope and important findings have been removed".
-  "The Debate Over the Hydrofracking Study's Scope". The New York Times. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2012. "While environmentalists have aggressively lobbied the agency to broaden the scope of the study, industry has lobbied the agency to narrow this focus".
-  "Natural Gas Documents". The New York Times. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2012. "The Times reviewed more than 30,000 pages of documents obtained through open records requests of state and federal agencies and by visiting various regional offices that oversee drilling in Pennsylvania. Some of the documents were leaked by state or federal officials."
-  Ramanuja, Krishna (7 March 2012). "Study suggests hydrofracking is killing farm animals, pets". Cornell Chronicle (Cornell University). Retrieved 9 March 2012.
-  Drajem, Mark (11 January 2012). "Fracking Political Support Unshaken by Doctors' Call for Ban". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
-  Alex Wayne (4 January 2012). "Health Effects of Fracking Need Study, Says CDC Scientist". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
-  “Dr. APIS” Science Leaflet : 5 June – World Environment Day (2014) (Document Prepared for Research Group of Agriculture Development Trust, Baramati (India). (Unpublished Documents of “Dr. APIS” Science Leaflet).
Publication order reference