Spatial analysis of heavy metal accumulation in Mangifera indica and Pentaclethra macrophylla near Owaza gas flaring station in Abia State, Nigeria
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The menace of gas flaring in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has continued unabated despite incessant promises by the Federal Government to put an end to it. In this study, a spatial analysis of the accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of Mangifera indica and Penthaclethra macrophylla and the soils on which they are growing was carried out. Three sites – 1, 2 & 3, were selected based on the availability M. indica and P. macrophylla at 100 m, 250 m and 350 m distances respectively, from the gas flaring source. Three individual trees were randomly selected from each of M. indica and P. macrophylla for soil and leaf sampling at each site. The collected soil and leaf samples were analysed for Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Copper (Cu), using standard methods. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the concentrations of the heavy metals in soils around the roots of M. indica at the 3 sites except for Cd. Copper (Cu), Zn and Cr varied significantly (p < 0.05) in soils around the roots of P. macrophylla at the sites. Cadmium and Ni were almost absent in soils and leaves of both species at the sites. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the concentrations of heavy metals in soils around the roots of M. indica and P. macrophylla at each site except in Site 1 where Cu, Zn and Cr, and Site 3 where Cr, varied significantly between the two species. Copper (Cu), Zn, Cr and Pb in leaves of both M. indica and P. macrophylla varied significantly (p < 0.05) among the sites. Concentrations of the heavy metals in leaves of both species at each site did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) except for Cr in Site 2. The concentrations of the heavy metals in both soil and leaves of the two tree species were within the permissible limits except for Chromium.
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