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Article title

Evidence for the similar biochemical background for psychiatric disorders and psychoactive substances addiction

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Dowody na wspólne biochemiczne podłoże zaburzeń psychicznych oraz uzależnień od substancji chemicznych

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Nowadays, the effects of psychoactive substances dependence are becoming more severe and acute on the social level, so this topic of research appears in the orbit of interest to many sub-disciplines, such as psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurosciences and biochemistry. The authors conducted a literature review devoted to psychiatric disorder and addiction to alcohol and other psychoactive substances in order to present evidence for the similar biochemical and neurophysiologic background for both of the mentioned above disorders. In this paper there are presented data of animal models, neuroimaging techniques and neuropsychological tests. Moreover, the authors of this paper try to identify the possible link between personality traits (e.g. impulsivity or novelty seeking) or inborn properties of the central nervous system and the development of addiction that can gradually lead to irreversible brain changes. The authors also address the phenomena of self-medication among schizophrenic patients using regularly tobacco. In the article there is also discussed the potential application of psychostimulants in the treatment of disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy.
Współcześnie skutki uzależnienie od substancji psychoaktywnych stają się coraz bardziej dojmujące na poziomie społecznym, dlatego ta tematyka badań pojawia się w orbicie zainteresowań wielu dyscyplin, takich jak: psychiatria, neuropsychologia, neuronauki czy biochemia. Autorzy dokonali przeglądu literatury poświęconej zagadnieniom genezy zaburzeń psychicznych, jak również uzależnienia od alkoholu oraz substancji psychoaktywnych, w poszukiwaniu dowodów świadczących o podobieństwach w etiologii na poziomie biochemicznym oraz neurofizjologicznym. W poniższym artykule przedstawione zostaną dane pochodzące z modeli zwierzęcych, technik neuroobrazowania oraz testów neuropsychologicznych. Ponadto omawiane są także związki pomiędzy niektórymi cechami osobowości takimi jak impulsywność czy poszukiwanie nowości a wrodzonymi właściwościami ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, które mogą wpływać na rozwój uzależnienia. Autorzy pochylili się także nad zagadnieniem używania wyrobów tytoniowych przez osoby chorujące na schizofrenie w kontekście samoleczenia. W poniższym artykule zostało omówione także zastosowanie substancji psychoaktywnych w leczeniu zaburzeń takich jak: zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwagi (ADHD) czy narkolepsja.









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