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2006 | 6 | 4 | 203-210
Article title

Traumatyczne doświadczenia w dzieciństwie jako czynniki ryzyka zaburzeń psychicznych wieku rozwojowego i dorosłości

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Childhood traumatic events as a risk factor on psychiatric disorders in the age of child’s development and adulthood
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Abstracts
EN
Traumatic childhood-related experiences are a risk factor for several mental disorders during developmental age. Effects of traumatic events last until adulthood, promoting manifestation of symptoms of mental diseases. Among psychiatric patients, the incidence of such childhood-related events as sexual abuse, emotional abuse and physical violence is significantly higher than in general population. Traumatic experiences play a particular role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, expressed in the traumagenic theory of this disease. Unfavourable events associated with important losses play an important role in the development of depression. One of the most basic childhood-related losses is the loss of mother. In children, the source of traumatic experiences is often family dysfunction and parental mental disease. Threatening events in the family contribute to incorrect formation of personality, usually in the direction of borderline or dissocial personality. Catastrophic events during childhood are a risk factor for anxiety disorders. They may precede for many years or may be the direct triggering mechanism for anxiety symptoms in children. Stress associated with negative experiences inhibits normal intellectual development in children, contributing to worse verbal function and academic problems. Traumatic experiences may cause emotional disorders in children, e.g. nocturnal enuresis, neurorozwounderwear soiling or selective mutism. Childhood traumata may result in structural brain lesions. Children who experienced violence may present lesions in the limbic system – hippocampus, amygdala and septal area. Structural lesions resulting from traumatic experiences make these children more vulnerable to stress later in life, thus increasing the risk of mental disorders in adulthood.
PL
Traumatyczne doświadczenia w dzieciństwie są czynnikiem ryzyka wielu zaburzeń psychicznych wieku rozwojowego. Skutki traumatycznych zdarzeń trwają do wieku dorosłego, sprzyjając ujawnieniu się objawów chorób psychicznych. U pacjentów psychiatrycznych znacząco częściej notuje się w wywiadzie takie wydarzenia w dzieciństwie, jak wykorzystywanie seksualne, nadużycia emocjonalne i przemoc fizyczna. Traumatyczne doświadczenia odgrywają szczególną rolę w patogenezie schizofrenii, co podkreśla się w traumagenicznej teorii tej choroby. W depresji bardzo istotne są niekorzystne wydarzenia związane z ważnymi utratami. Jedną z najważniejszych utrat w dzieciństwie stanowi strata matki. U dzieci źródłem traumatycznych przeżyć są często dysfunkcyjna rodzina i zaburzenia psychiczne rodziców. Zagrażające wydarzenia w rodzinie sprzyjają nieprawidłowemu kształtowaniu się osobowości, najczęściej w kierunku typu osobowości granicznej lub dyssocjalnej. Katastroficzne wydarzania w dzieciństwie stanowią czynnik ryzyka zaburzeń lękowych. Mogą one wystąpić wiele lat przed lub być bezpośrednim mechanizmem spustowym objawów lękowych u dzieci. Stres związany z negatywnymi przeżyciami hamująco wpływa na rozwój intelektualny dzieci, przyczyniając się do obniżenia funkcji werbalnych i trudności w nauce. Traumatyczne przeżycia są przyczyną zaburzeń emocjonalnych u dzieci, takich jak moczenie nocne, zanieczyszczanie się czy mutyzm selektywny. W wyniku doznanych urazów w dzieciństwie obserwuje się zmiany strukturalne mózgu. U dzieci doświadczających przemocy stwierdzono zmiany w układzie limbicznym – w hipokampie, jądrach migdałowatych, w okolicach przegrody. Zmiany strukturalne mózgu powstałe pod wpływem traumatycznych przeżyć uwrażliwiają na stres w późniejszym okresie życia, narażając na ujawnienie się zaburzeń psychicznych w wieku dorosłym.
Discipline
Year
Volume
6
Issue
4
Pages
203-210
Physical description
References
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