Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | XVII | 2 | 307-326
Article title

Siła woli we współczesnej psychologii: ujęcie personologiczne i procesualne

Title variants
The strenght of volition in the contemporary psychology: trait – and process-oriented approaches
Languages of publication
This article presents existing in contemporary psychology two perspectives on strength of volition: trait and process-oriented approaches. The trait perspective is concentrated on researches exploring origins and consequences of strength of volition. Within the process-oriented perspective, researchers attempt to define the mechanisms underlying the strength of volition and the essential ingredients of willpower. This perspective enables to explain also intra – individual differences in willpower. The process oriented perspective underlines the necessity to take into consideration broader personality context in analyzing the willpower role and difficulties in action control process. Of particular importance is the level of autonomy of the standards and type of control action. Democratic, autonomous control mode of action, based mainly on intuitive volitional mechanisms is conducive to volitional efficiency.

Physical description
  • Szkoła Wyższa Psychologii Społecznej, Wydział Zamiejscowy w Sopocie University Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty in Sopot,
  • Bagozzi, R.P., Baumgartner, H., Yi, Y. (1992). State versus action orientation and the theory of reasoned action: An application to coupon usage. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 505-518.
  • Bandura, A. (1996). Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective-disengagement. Psychological Inquiry, 7, 1, 20-25.
  • Baumann, N., Kaschel, R., Kuhl, J. (2005). Striving for unwanted goals: Stress-depend discrepancies between explicit and implicit achievement motives reduce subjective well-being and increase psychosomatic symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 5, 781-799.
  • Baumann, N., Kaschel, R., Kuhl, J. (2007). Affect sensitivity and affect regulation in dealing with positive and negative affect. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 239-248.
  • Baumann, N., Kuhl, J. (2002). Intuition, affect, and personality: Unconscious coherence judgments and self-regulation of negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1213-1223.
  • Baumann, N., Kuhl, J. (2005). How to resist temptation: The effects of external control versus autonomy. Journal of Personality, 73, 444-472.
  • Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., Tice, D.M. (1998). Ego-depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252-1265.
  • Baumeister, R.F., Heatherton,T.F., Tice, D.M. (1994). Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego,CA: Academic Press.
  • Beckmann, J., Kellmann, M. (2004). Self-regulation and recovery: Approaching an understanding of the process of recovery from stress. Psychological Reports, 95, 1135-1153.
  • Block, J.H., Block, J. (1980). The role of ego control I ego resiliency in the organization of behavior. W: W.A. Collins (red.), Development of cognitive, affect, and social relations: The Minnesota symposium in child psychology (s. 39-101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Brunstein, J.C. (2001). Personal goals and action versus state orientation: Who builds a commitment to realistic and need-congruent goals? Zeitschrift fur Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 1-12.
  • Carver, C.S, Scheier, M.F. (1982). Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality social, clinical and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111-135.
  • Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F. (2004). Perspectives on Personality. Boston: Pearson Education.
  • De Boer, B.J., van Hooft, E.A.J., Bakker, A.B. (2011). Stop and start control: A distinction within self-control. European Journal of Personality, 25, 349-362.
  • Dieffendorf, J.M., Hall, R.J., Lord, R.G., Strean, M.L. (2000). Action-state orientation: Construct validity of a revised measure and its relationship to work-related variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 250-263.
  • Drat-Ruszczak, K. (2003). Teorie osobowości – podejście psychodynamiczne i humanistyczne. W: J. Strelau (red.), Psychologia. Podręcznik akademicki (s. 601-652). Gdańsk: GWP.
  • Duval, S., Wicklund, R.A. (1972). A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press.
  • Finkenauer, C., Engels, R.C.M., Baumeister, R.F. (2005). Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: the role of self-control. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 1, 58-69.
  • Fuhrmann, A., Kuhl, J. (1998). Maintaining a healthy diet: Effects of personality and self-reward versus self-punishment on commitment to and enactment of self- -chosen and assigned goals. Psychology and Health, 13, 651-686.
  • Gaillot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303-327.
  • Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., (2007). Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 325-336.
  • Gailliot, M.T., Plant, E.A., Butz, D.A., Baumeister, R.F. (2007). Increasing self-regulatory strength can reduce the depleting effect of suppressing stereotypes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, 281-294.
  • Heckhausen, H., Strang, H. (1988). Efficiency under record performance demands: Exertion control-an individual difference variable? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 489-498.
  • Higgins, E.T. (1989). Self-discrepancy theory: What patterns of self-beliefs cause people to suffer. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 93-136.
  • Hoyle, R.H. (2006). Personality and self-regulation: Trait and information-processing perspectives. Journal of Personality, 74, 1507-1525.
  • James, W. (2002). Psychologia. Kurs skrócony. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  • Jarymowicz, M. (2008). Psychologiczne podstawy podmiotowości. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  • Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2010a). Wolna wola w świetle badań współczesnej psychologii nad procesami samoregulacji i samokontroli. Psychologia Społeczna, 4 (15), 330-344.
  • Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2010b). Siła ego i sprawność mechanizmów kontroli działania a autonomia. Studia Psychologiczne, 4 (48), 17-36.
  • Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2011). Postawy rodzicielskie a zdolności w zakresie samoregulacji: Wychowawcze uwarunkowania gratyfikacji podstawowych potrzeb, internalizacji standardów oraz siły woli. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 16 (4), 89-108.
  • Kaschel, R., Kuhl, J. (2004). Motivational counseling in an extended functional context: Personality systems interaction theory and assessment. W: W.M. Cox, E. Klinger (red.), Motivational counseling: Motivating people for change (s. 99-119). Sussex: Wiley.
  • Kazen, M., Baumann, N., Kuhl, J. (2003). Self-infiltration vs. self-compatibility checking in dealing with unattractive tasks: The moderating influence of state vs. action orientation. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 157-197.
  • Kofta, M. (1979). Samokontrola a emocje. Warszawa: PWN.
  • Koole, S.L. (2004). Volitional shielding of the self: Effects of action orientation and external demands on implicit self-evaluation. Social Cognition, 22, 117-146.
  • Koole, S.L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 4-41.
  • Koole, S.L, Jostmann, N.B. (2004). Getting a Grip on Your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 6, 974-990.
  • Koole, S.L., Kuhl, J. (2007). Dealing with unwanted feelings: The role of affect regulation in volitional action control. W: J. Shah, W. Gardner (red.), Handbook of motivation science (s. 295-307). New York: Guilford.
  • Koole, S.L., Kuhl, J., Jostmann, N.B, Vohs, K.D. (2005). On the hidden benefits of state orientation: Can people prosper without efficient affect regulation skills? W: A. Tesser, J. Wood, D.A. Stapel (red.), On building, defending, and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (s. 217-243). London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Koole, S.L., McCullough, M.L., Kuhl, J., Roelofsma, P.H.M.P. (2010). Why religion’s burdens are light: From religiosity to implicit self-regulation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 95-107.
  • Kremen, A.M., Block, J. (1998). The roots of ego-control In young adulthood: Links with parenting in early childhood. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 75, 4, 1062-1075.
  • Kuhl, J. (1995). A theory of action versus state orientations. W: J. Kuhl, J. Beckmann (red.), Volition and personality (s. 47-59). Seattle: Hogrefe and Huber.
  • Kuhl, J. (1996) Who controls whom ”when I control myself”? Psychological Inquiry, 7, 1, 61-68.
  • Kuhl J. (2011). Adaptive and maladaptive pathways of self-development: Mental health and interactions among personality systems. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 16 (4), 9-31.
  • Kuhl, J., Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and self-control: The volitional components checklist. W: J. Heckhausen, C. Dweck (red.), Life span perspectives on motivation and control (s. 15-49). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kuhl, J., Kazen, M. (1994). Self-discrimination and memory: State orientation and false self-ascription of assigned activities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1103-1115.
  • Kuhl, J., Kazen, M., Koole, S.L. (2006). Putting self-regulation theory into practice: A user’s manual. Applied Psychology: An international Review, 55, 408-418.
  • Kuhl, J., Quirin, M. (2011). Seven steps toward freedom and two ways to lose it. Overcoming limitations of intentionality through self-confrontational coping with stress. Social Psychology, 42, 1, 74-84.
  • Marszał-Wiśniewska, M. (2001). Wychowawcze uwarunkowania orientacji na stan: jak można nie wykształcić silnej woli. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 44, 4, 479-494.
  • McCrae, R.R., Costa P.T., Jr. (1995). Trait explanations in personality psychology. European Journal of Personality, 9, 231-252.
  • Mischel, W., Ayduk, O. (2004). Willpower in a Cognitive-Affective Processing System. The dynamics od delay of gratification W: R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs (red.), Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory, and applications (s. 99-129). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M.G., Casey, B.J., Gotlib, I.H., Jonides, J., Kross, E., Teslovich, T., Wilson, N.L., Zayas,V., Shoda,Y. (2011). “Willpower” over life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6 (2), 252-256.
  • Mischel, W., Ebbesen, E.B. (1970). Attention in delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 239-337.
  • Moller, A.C, Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M. (2006) Choice and ego depletion: The moderating role of autonomy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 8, 1024-1036.
  • Muraven, M. (2008). Autonomous self-control is less depleting. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 763-770.
  • Muraven, M., Baumeister, R.F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247-259.
  • Muraven, M., Rosman, H., Gagne, M. (2007). Lack of autonomy and self-control: Performance contingent rewards lead to greater depletion. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 322-330.
  • Oleś, P.K. (2003). Wprowadzenie do psychologii osobowości. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
  • Pervin, L.A. (2002). Psychologia osobowości. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
  • Pervin, L.A., John, O.P. (2002). Osobowość. Teoria i badania. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
  • Rothbart, M.K., Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. W: M.E. Lamb, A.L. Brown (red.), Advances in developmental psychology (s. 37-96). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Rothermund, K., Voss, A., Wentura, D. (2008). Counter-regulation in affective attentional bias: A basicmechanism that warrants flexibility in motivation and emotion. Emotion, 8, 34-46.
  • Rueda, M.R., Posner, M.I., Rothbart, M.K. (2004). Attentional control and self-regulation. W: R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs (red.), Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory and applications (s. 283-300). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  • Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. (2006). Self-regulation and the problem of human autonomy: Does psychology need choice, self-determination and will? Journal of Personality, 74, 1557-1585.
  • Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. (2008). From Ego Depletion to Vitality: Theory and Findings Concerning the Facilitation of Energy Available to the Self. Social and Personality Psychology 2, 702-717.
  • Schmeichel, B.J., Baumeister, R.F. (2004). Self-regulatory strength. W: R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs (red.), Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory, and applications (s. 84-98). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., Boone, A.L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271-322.
  • Vansteenkiste, M., Sheldon, K.M. (2006). There’s nothing more practical than a good theory: Integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 63-82.
  • Vohs, K.D., Baumeister, R.F. (2004). Understanding self-regulation: An Introduction. W: R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs (red. ), Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory, and applications (s. 1-9). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Wojciszke, B. (2002). Człowiek wśród ludzi. Zarys psychologii społecznej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
  • Wojciszke, B. (2003). Pogranicze psychologii osobowości i społecznej: samoocena jako cecha i jako motyw. W: B. Wojciszke, M. Plopa (red.), Osobowość a procesy psychiczne i zachowanie (s. 15-48). Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.