Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 15 | 1 | 5–23

Article title

Zalecenia Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologii Onkologicznej dotyczące diagnostyki i leczenia raka jajnika


Title variants

Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Oncology Society for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer

Languages of publication



Over 95% of ovarian malignancies arise from the epithelium. The major risk factors for ovarian cancer include: • hereditary mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (16–20% of all ovarian cancers); • hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome; • familial history of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) (Lynch syndrome – nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, ureteral cancer); • infertility, long-term stimulation of ovulation, unsuccessful IVF (in vitro fertilisation) attempts; • hormone replacement therapy. Factors that decrease the risk for ovarian cancer include oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy and breastfeeding(1).
Ponad 95% nowotworów złośliwych jajnika ma pochodzenie nabłonkowe. Do najważniejszych czynników ryzyka występowania raka jajnika należą: • nosicielstwo mutacji genów BRCA1 i BRCA2 (dotyczy do 16–20% wszystkich przypadków raka jajnika); • zespoły dziedzicznego raka piersi i jajnika; • rodzinne występowanie dziedzicznego niepolipowatego raka jelita grubego (zespół Lyncha – niepolipowaty rak jelita grubego, rak endometrium, rak górnego odcinka układu pokarmowego, rak urotelialny moczowodu); • bezdzietność, długotrwała stymulacja owulacji, nieskuteczne próby IVF (in vitro fertilisation – zapłodnienie pozaustrojowe, zapłodnienie in vitro); • hormonalna terapia zastępcza. Ryzyko wystąpienia raka jajnika zmniejszają: stosowanie antykoncepcji hormonalnej, okluzja jajowodów, wycięcie jajników i jajowodów, wycięcie macicy i karmienie piersią(1).










Physical description


  • 1. Schorge JO, Modesitt SC, Coleman RL et al.: SGO White Paper on ovarian cancer: etiology, screening and surveillance. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 119: 7–17.
  • 2. Smith RA, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Brooks D et al.: Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65: 30–54.
  • 3. Rosenthal AN, Fraser L, Philpott S et al.: Final results of 4-monthly screening in the UK Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UKFOCSS Phase 2). J Clin Oncol 2013; 31 (Suppl): abstract 5507.
  • 4. Kauff ND, Satagopan JM, Robson ME et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1609–1615.
  • 5. McAlpine JN, Hanley GE, Woo MM et al.; Ovarian Cancer Research Program of British Columbia: Opportunistic salpingectomy: uptake, risks, and complications of a regional initiative for ovarian cancer prevention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 210: 471.e1–471.e11.
  • 6. Kamran MW, Vaughan D, Crosby D et al.: Opportunistic and interventional salpingectomy in women at risk: a strategy for preventing pelvic serous cancer (PSC). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 170: 251–254.
  • 7. Yoon SH, Kim SN, Shim SH et al.: Bilateral salpingectomy can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in the general population: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 2016; 55: 38–46.
  • 8. Goff BA, Mandel LS, Drescher CW et al.: Development of an ovarian cancer symptom index: possibilities for earlier detection. Cancer 2007; 109: 221–227.
  • 9. Geomini P, Kruitwagen R, Bremer GL et al.: The accuracy of risk scores in predicting ovarian malignancy: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113: 384–394.
  • 10. Van Calster B, Van Hoorde K, Valentin L et al.; International Ovarian Tumour Analysis Group: Evaluating the risk of ovarian cancer before surgery using the ADNEX model to differentiate between benign, borderline, early and advanced stage invasive, and secondary metastatic tumours: prospective multicentre diagnostic study. BMJ 2014; 349: g5920.
  • 11. Vang R, Shih IeM, Kurman RJ: Ovarian low-grade and highgrade serous carcinoma: pathogenesis, clinicopathologic and molecular biologic features, and diagnostic problems. Adv Anat Pathol 2009; 16: 267–282.
  • 12. Ledermann J, Harter P, Gourley C et al.: Olaparib maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed serous ovarian cancer: a preplanned retrospective analysis of outcomes byBRCA status in a randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 852–861.
  • 13. Prat J; FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology: Staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2014; 124: 1–5.
  • 14. Schorge JO, Eisenhauer EE, Chi DS: Current surgical management of ovarian cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2012; 26: 93–109.
  • 15. Cheng A, Li M, Kanis MJ et al.: Is it necessary to perform routine appendectomy for mucinous ovarian neoplasms? A retrospective study and meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol 2017; 144: 215–222.
  • 16. Morice P, Denschlag D, Rodolakis A et al.; Fertility Task Force of the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology: Recommendations of the Fertility Task Force of the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology about the conservative management of ovarian malignant tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011; 21: 951–963.
  • 17. Satoh T, Hatae M, Watanabe Y et al.: Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposal for patient selection. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 1727–1732.
  • 18. Fagotti A, Vizzielli G, De Iaco P et al.: A multicentric trial (Olympia-MITO 13) on the accuracy of laparoscopy to assess peritoneal spread in ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 209: 462.e1–462.e11.
  • 19. Elattar A, Bryant A, Winter-Roach BA et al.: Optimal primary surgical treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (8): CD007565.
  • 20. Harter P, Sehouli J, Lorusso D et al.: LION: Lymphadenectomy in ovarian neoplasms – a prospective randomized AGO study group led gynecologic cancer intergroup trial. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35 (suppl; abstr 5500).
  • 21. Morrison J, Haldar K, Kehoe S et al.: Chemotherapy versus surgery for initial treatment in advanced ovarian epithelial cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; (8): CD005343.
  • 22. da Costa Miranda V, de Souza Fêde ÂB, Dos Anjos CH et al.: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced ovarian cancer patients unsuitable for primary surgery: safety and effectiveness. Gynecol Oncol 2014; 132: 287–291.
  • 23. Bookman MA, Brady MF, McGuire WP et al.: Evaluation of new platinum-based treatment regimens in advanced-stage ovarian cancer: a Phase III Trial of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 1419–1425.
  • 24. Ozols RF, Bundy BN, Greer BE et al.; Gynecologic Oncology Group: Phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel compared with cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with optimally resected stage III ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 3194–3200.
  • 25. McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF et al.: Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 1–6.
  • 26. Armstrong DK, Bundy B, Wenzel L et al.; Gynecologic Oncology Group: Intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 34–43.
  • 27. Walker JL, Brady MF, DiSilvestro PA et al.: A phase III clinical trial of bevacizumab with IV versus IP chemotherapy in ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma. NCI-supplied agent(s): bevacizumab (NSC #704865, IND #7921). NCT01167712 a GOG/NRG trial (GOG 252). Presented at: 2016 SGO Annual Meeting. March 19–22, 2016. San Diego, CA. Latebreaking abstract.
  • 28. Katsumata N, Yasuda M, Isonishi S et al.; Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group: Long-term results of dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin versus conventional paclitaxel and carboplatin for treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer (JGOG 3016): a randomised, controlled, open-label trial. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14: 1020–1026.
  • 29. Pignata S, Scambia G, Katsaros D et al.; Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer (MITO-7); Groupe d’Investigateurs Nationaux pour l’Etude des Cancers Ovariens et du sein (GINECO); Mario Negri Gynecologic Oncology (MaNGO); European Network of Gynaecological Oncological Trial Groups (ENGOT-OV-10); Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Investigators: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel once a week versus every 3 weeks in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (MITO-7): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 396–405.
  • 30. Oza AM, Cook AD, Pfisterer J et al.; ICON7 trial investigators: Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7): overall survival results of a phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16: 928–936.
  • 31. Vasey PA, Paul J, Birt A et al.: Docetaxel and cisplatin in combination as first-line chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Scottish Gynaecological Cancer Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 2069–2080.
  • 32. Bell J, Brady MF, Young RC et al.; Gynecologic Oncology Group: Randomized phase III trial of three versus six cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel in early stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 102: 432–439.
  • 33. Vergote I, Tropé CG, Amant F et al.; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Gynaecological Cancer Group; NCIC Clinical Trials Group: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or primary surgery in stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 943–953.
  • 34. Kehoe S, Hook J, Nankivell M et al.: Primary chemotherapy versus primary surgery for newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer (CHORUS): an open-label, randomised, controlled, noninferiority trial. Lancet 2015; 386: 249–257.
  • 35. Rouzier R, Gouy S, Selle F et al.: Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab-containing neoadjuvant therapy followed by interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer: results from the ANTHALYA trial. Eur J Cancer 2017; 70: 133–142.
  • 36. Copeland LJ, Brady MF, Burger RA et al.: Phase III trial of maintenance therapy in women with advanced ovary/tubal/peritoneal cancer after a complete response to first-line therapy: an NRG oncology (GOG Legacy) study. Presented at: 2017 SGO Annual Meeting; March 12–15, 2017; National Harbor, MD. Abstract LBA1.
  • 37. Rustin GJ, van der Burg ME, Griffin CL et al.; MRC OV05; EORTC 55955 investigators: Early versus delayed treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer (MRC OV05/EORTC 55955): a randomised trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 1155–1163.
  • 38. Du Bois A, Vergote I, Ferron G et al.; Randomized controlled phase III study evaluating the impact of secondary cytoreductive surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer: AGO DESKTOP III/ENGOT ov20. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35 (suppl; abstr 5501).
  • 39. Friedlander M, Trimble E, Tinker A et al.; Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup: Clinical trials in recurrent ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2011; 21: 771–775.
  • 40. du Bois A, Reuss A, Pujade-Lauraine E et al.: Role of surgical outcome as prognostic factor in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a combined exploratory analysis of 3 prospectively randomized phase 3 multicenter trials: by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie Studiengruppe Ovarialkarzinom (AGO-OVAR) and the Groupe d’Investigateurs Nationaux Pour les Etudes des Cancers de l’Ovaire (GINECO). Cancer 2009; 115: 1234–1244.
  • 41. Kristeleit RS, Shapira-Frommer R, Oaknin A et al.: Clinical activity of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib in patients (pts) with high-grade ovarian carcinoma (HGOC) and a BRCA mutation (BRCAmut): analysis of pooled data from Study 10 (parts 1, 2a, and 3) and ARIEL2 (parts 1 and 2). Presented at: 2016 ESMO Congress; October 7–11, 2016; Copenhagen, Denmark. Abstract 8560.
  • 42. Kaufman B, Shapira-Frommer R, Schmutzler RK et al.: Olaparib monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33: 244–250.
  • 43. Gordon AN, Fleagle JT, Guthrie D et al.: Recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a randomized phase III study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus topotecan. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 3312–3322.
  • 44. ten Bokkel Huinink W, Gore M, Carmichael J et al.: Topotecan versus paclitaxel for the treatment of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 2183–2193.
  • 45. Mutch DG, Orlando M, Goss T et al.: Randomized phase III trial of gemcitabine compared with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 2811–2818.
  • 46. Ferrandina G, Ludovisi M, Lorusso D et al.: Phase III trial of gemcitabine compared with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in progressive or recurrent ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 890–896.
  • 47. Gynecologic Oncology Group; Markman M, Blessing J, Rubin SC et al.: Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 ) in platinum and paclitaxel-resistant ovarian and primary peritoneal cancers: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 101: 436–440.
  • 48. Pujade-Lauraine E, Hilpert F, Weber B et al.: Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: the AURELIA open-label randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32: 1302–1308.
  • 49. Parmar MK, Ledermann JA, Colombo N et al.; ICON and AGO Collaborators: Paclitaxel plus platinum-based chemotherapy versus conventional platinum-based chemotherapy in women with relapsed ovarian cancer: the ICON4/AGO-OVAR-2.2 trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 2099–2106.
  • 50. Pfisterer J, Plante M, Vergote I et al.; AGO-OVAR; NCIC CTG; EORTC GCG: Gemcitabine plus carboplatin compared with carboplatin in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer: an intergroup trial of the AGO-OVAR, the NCIC CTG, and the EORTC GCG. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 4699–4707.
  • 51. Pujade-Lauraine E, Wagner U, Aavall-Lundqvist E et al.: Pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin and Carboplatin compared with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin for patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in late relapse. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 3323–3329.
  • 52. Aghajanian C, Blank SV, Goff BA et al.: OCEANS: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30: 2039–2045.
  • 53. Coleman RL, Brady MF, Herzog TJ et al.: Bevacizumab and paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy and secondary cytoreduction in recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study GOG-0213): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2017; 18: 779–791.
  • 54. Ledermann J, Harter P, Gourley C et al.: Olaparib maintenance therapy in platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 1382–1392.
  • 55. Pujade-Lauraine E, Ledermann JA, Penson RT et al.: Treatment with olaparib monotherapy in the maintenance setting significantly improves progression-free survival in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer: results from the phase III SOLO2 study. Annual Meeting on Women’s Cancer of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology; National Harbor, MD; March 12–15, 2017. Abstract LBA2.
  • 56. Mirza MR, Monk BJ, Herrstedt J et al.; ENGOT-OV16/NOVA Investigators: Niraparib maintenance therapy in platinumsensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 2154–2164.
  • 57. Gershenson DM, Bodurka DC, Coleman RL et al.: Hormonal maintenance therapy for women with low-grade serous cancer of the ovary or peritoneum. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 1103–1111.
  • 58. Tavassoli FA, Devilee P (eds.): World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. IARC Press, Lyon 2003.
  • 59. Morice P, Uzan C, Fauvet R et al.: Borderline ovarian tumour: pathological diagnostic dilemma and risk factors for invasive or lethal recurrence. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: e103–e115.
  • 60. Trillsch F, Mahner S, Woelber L et al.: Age-dependent differences in borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) regarding clinical characteristics and outcome: results from a sub-analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie (AGO) ROBOT study. Ann Oncol 2014; 25: 1320–1327.
  • 61. Vasconcelos I, Olschewski J, Braicu I et al.: A meta-analysis on the impact of platinum-based adjuvant treatment on the outcome of borderline ovarian tumors with invasive implants. Oncologist 2015; 20: 151–158.
  • 62. Faluyi O, Mackean M, Gourley C et al.: Interventions for the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (9): CD007696.

Document Type


Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.