Influential Factors that Contribute to Black Golfers’ Participation at the Elite-Level
Languages of publication
The purpose of this study was to examine various influences that contribute to Black golfers engaging in golf as a physical activity and competing in it as a sport at an elite - level (i.e., college and professional levels). Given that Blacks are underrepresented as golf participants in general and at the elite - level in particular, it is important to gain insights from those who have excelled at golf beyond the recreational levels. Uti lizing a basic interpretive qualitative design, semi - structured interviews with 9 Black males and 1 Black female who were collegiate or professional golfers were conducted. Questions regarding how the participants became involved and interested in golf as a recreational and physical activity, and what contributed to their ability to compete beyond these beginning levels were asked. Findings suggest the following five factors contributed greatly to these participants’ participation and success in golf: 1) Fa milial Involvement, 2) Grass Roots Golf Programs, 3) Golf as a Means to College Scholarship, 4) Black Golfers as Role Models, 5) Black Golfer as Unique. Future research directions as well as practical implications for increasing racial minority participati on in golf as a physical activity and sport at the elite - levels are also provided.
- 1. Saint Onge JM, Krueger PM: Education and racial-ethnic differences in types of exercise in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2011; 52(2): 197-211.
- 2. National Golf Foundation: Minority golf participation in the United States. 2010 edition. Jupiter, FL: National Golf Foundation, 2010.
- 3. Rosselli A, Singer JN: Toward a framework to examine the underrepresentation of racial minorities in golf within the United States. Quest, 2015; 67: 44-55.
- 4. Uneven Fairways: The story of the Negro leagues of golf (DVD), Golf Channel, 2009.
- 5. Doherty AJ, Chelladurai P: Managing cultural diversity in sport organizations: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 1999; 13: 280-297.
- 6. DeSensi JT: Understanding multiculturalism and valuing diversity: A theoretical Perspective. Quest, 1999; 47: 34-43.
- 7. Parker LA: (2013, June 11). At Merion’s U.S. open, shallow racial requirements still linger. Retrieved from http://www.trentonian.com on September 25, 2013.
- 8. Daddario G, Wigley BJ: Prejudice, patriarchy, and the PGA: Defensive discourse surrounding the Shoal creek and Augusta national controversies. Journal of Sport Management, 2006; 20: 466-482.
- 9. Merriam SB: Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
- 10. Glaser BG, Strauss AL: The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research, New York: Aldinede Gruyter, 1967.
- 11. Thomas DR: A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 2006; 27(2): 237-246.
- 12. Boyatzis R: Transforming Qualitative information: Thematic Analysis and Code Development, Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 1998.
- 13. Miles MB, Huberman AM: Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994.
- 14. Creswell JW: Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2002.
- 15. Fredricks J, Eccles J: Children’s competence and value beliefs from childhood through adolescence: Growth trajectories in two male-sex-typed domains. Developmental Psychology, 2002; 38: 519-533.
- 16. Rosselli AC, Cunningham GB, Singer, JN: Does golf=white? Perceptions of the prototypical golfer. International Journal of Sport Studies, 2017; 7(1): 1-7.
- 17. Singer JN: Addressing epistemological racism in sport management research. Journal of Sport Management, 2005; 19(4): 464-479.
- 18. Cooper JN, Cavil JK, Cheeks G: The state of intercollegiate athletics at historically black colleges and universities (HBCU)s: Past, present, & persistence. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 2014; 7: 307-332.
- 19. Hodge SR, Harrison Jr. L, Burden Jr. JW, Dixson AD: Brown in black and white—then and now: A question of educating or sporting African American males in America. American Behavioral Scientist, 2008; 51(7): 928-952.
- 20. Sirak R: (2013, January 8). Room for growth. Retrieved from http://www.golfdigest.com on May 23, 2013.
- 21. Poláčková B, Halmová N: The relationship between weekly physical activity and quality of life in elderly women (pilot study). Physical Activity Review, 2016; 4: 100-106.
- 22. Chideya F: The color of our future, New York, NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1999
Publication order reference