Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results


2012 | 6 | 4 | 244-248

Article title

Test stania na jednej nodze jako narzędzie do oceny równowagi osób starszych

Title variants

One leg standing test as a tool for the assessment of the balance in elderly individuals

Languages of publication



Osłabienie siły mięśniowej, zwłaszcza kończyn dolnych, zwiększa ryzyko upadków, stanowiących zagrożenie dla sprawności w starości. Do oceny równowagi, jako parametru wpływającego na upadki, można użyć wielu różnych narzędzi badawczych. Jednym z rekomendowanych prostych testów jest test stania na jednej nodze. W pracy przedstawiono problemy metodologiczne z przeprowadzeniem tego testu, zwracając uwagę na niejednolitość procedur. Geriatria 2012; 6: 244-248.
Muscle weakness, especially that of lower limbs, increases the risk of falls. It poses a threat to the functional status of elderly subjects. Among the parameters affecting the risk of falls, balance is one of the most important. There are many different tools recommended for its assessment.One leg standing test belongs to them. In this paper methodological issues, which are important for the conduction of this test, are presented with special attention paid to the diversity of procedures. Geriatria 2012; 6: 244-248.











Physical description





  • 1. Skalska A. Ograniczenie sprawności funkcjonalnej osób w podeszłym wieku. Zdrowie Publiczne i Zarządzanie2011; IX, 50-9.
  • 2. Goodpaster B, Won Park S, Harris TB, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2006;61:1059-64.
  • 3. Hahn ME, Lee HJ, Chou LS. Increased muscular challenge in older adults during obstructed gait. Gait Posture2005;22:356-61.
  • 4. Lexell J. Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J. Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci1995;50(Spec. No):11-9.
  • 5. Horak FB, Nashner LM. Central programming of postural movements adaptation to altered support surface configurations. J Neurophysiol1986;55:1369-81.
  • 6. Buatois S, Gueguen R, Gauchard GC, Benetos A, Perrin PP. Posturography and risk of recurrent falls in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Gerontology2006;52:345-52.
  • 7. Stevens JA.  Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults – United States, 1993–2003 and 2001–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55:1221-4.
  • 8. Fuller GF. Falls in the Elderly. Am Fam Physician 2000;61:2159-68.
  • 9. Vellas BJ, Wayne SJ, Romero LJ, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Fear of falling and restriction of mobility in elderly fallers. Age Ageing1997;26:189-93.
  • 10. Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med1988;319:1701-7.
  • 11. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Hu MH, Wu HD, Wang YW, Huang FC. Psychometric comparisons of the timed up and go, one-leg stand, functional reach, and Tinetti balance measures in community dwelling older people. J Am Geriatr Soc2004;52:1343-8.
  • 12. Bohannon RW. Single limb stance times: a descriptive metaanalysis of data from individuals at least 60 years of age. Topics Geriatr Rehabil2006;22:70-7.
  • 13. Michikawa T, Nishiwaki Y, Takebayashi T, Toyama Y. One-leg standing test for elderly populations. J Orthop Sci2009;14:675-85. Epub 2009 Oct 3.
  • 14. Briggs RC, Gossman MR, Birch R, Drews JE, Shaddeau SA. Balance performance among noninstitutionalized elderly women. Phys Ther1989;69:748-56.
  • 15. Richardson JK, Ashton-Miller JA, Lee SG, Jacobs MK. Moderate peripheral neuropathy impairs weight transfer and unipedal balance in the elderly. Arch Phys Med Rehabil1996;77:1152-6.
  • 16. Winter D.A. The Biomechanical and Motor Control of Human Gait. 2nd ed. Waterloo: University of Waterloo Press; 1991.
  • 17. Nakamura K. A “super-aged” society and the “locomotive syndrome. ” J Orthop Sci2008;13:1-2.
  • 18. Gehlsen GM, Whaley MH. Falls in the elderly. Part II. Balance, strength, and fl exibility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil1990;71:739-41.
  • 19. Thomas JI, Lane JV. A pilot study to explore the predictive validity of 4 measures of falls risk in frail elderly patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil2005;86:1636-40.
  • 20. Vellas BJ, Rubenstein LZ, Ousset PJ, Faisant C, Kostek V, Nourhashemi F, et al. One-leg standing balance and functional status in a population of 512 community-living elderly persons. Aging1997;9:95-8.
  • 21. Bulbulian R, Hargan ML. The effect of activity history and current activity on static and dynamic postural balance in older adults. Physiol Behav2000;70:319-25.
  • 22. Kalapotharakos VI, Michalopoulou M, Tokmakidis S, Godolias G. Effects of a resistance exercise programme on the performance of inactive older results. Int J Ther Rehabil2004;11:318-23.
  • 23. Kim H, Tanaka K, Shigematsu R.Characteristics of activity fitness of daily living in elderly Korean women. Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med1997;46:355-64.
  • 24. Jedrychowski W, Mroz E, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Jedrychowska I.Functional status of the lower extremities in elderly males. A community study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr1990;10:117-22.
  • 25. Netz Y, Argov E. Assessment of functional fi tness among independent older adults: a preliminary report. Percept Mot Skills1997;84:1059-74.
  • 26. Bohannon RW, Larkin PA, Cook AC, Gear J, Singer J. Decrease in timed balance test scores with aging. Phys Ther1984;64:1067-70.
  • 27. Whitney SL, Wrisley DM. The influence of footwear on timed balance scores of the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil2004;85:439-43.
  • 28. Mann GC, Whitney SL, Redfern MS, Borello-France DF, Furman JM. Functional reach and single leg stance in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. J Vestib Res1996;6:343-53.
  • 29. Kita K, Hujino K, Nasu T, Kawahara K, Sunami Y. A simple protocol for preventing falls and fractures in elderly individuals and musculoskeletal disease. Osteoporos Int2007;18:611-9.
  • 30. Hansson EE, Mansson N-O, Hakansson A. Effects of specific rehabilitation for dizziness among patients in primary health care. A randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil2004;18:558-65.
  • 31. Stones MJ, Kozma A. Balance and age in the sighted and blind. Arch Phys Med Rehabil1987;68:85-9.
  • 32. Balogun JA, Ajayi LO, Alawale F. Determinants of single limb stance balance performance. Afr J Med Sci1997;26:153-7.
  • 33. Nordell E, Kristinsdottir EK, Jarnlo G-B, Magnusson M, Thorngren K-G. Older patients with distal forearm fracture. A challenge to future fall and fracture prevention. Aging Clin Exp Res2005;17:90-5.
  • 34. Sergi G, Perissinotto E, Toffanello DE, Maggi S, Manzato A, Buja A, et al. Lower extremity motor performance and body mass index in elderly people: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:2023-9.
  • 35. Jonsson E, Seiger A, Hirschfeld H. One-leg stance in healthy young and elderly adults: a measure of postural steadiness?Clin Biomech2004;19:688-94.
  • 36. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Trueblood PR, Loy S, Harker JO, Pietruszka FM, et al. Effects of a group exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci2000;55:M317–21.
  • 37. Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI, Maki B, Measuring balance in the elderly: validation of an instrument. Can J Public Health1992;83(suppl 2):7-11.

Document Type


Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.