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2012 | 39 | 2 | 293-326
Article title

Telomeraza – struktura i funkcja oraz regulacja ekspresji genu

Content
Title variants
EN
Telomerase – structure, function and the regulation of gene expression
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
A telomere is a fragment localized at the end of chromosome which protects the chromosome from damage during replication. Telomeres are also factors that control number of cell divisions and are thought to be a suppressors of carcinogenesis since limited, strictly determined number of cell divisions protects from accumulation of mutations in cell. It is assumed that presence of 4-6 mutation in genetic material is a carcinogenic factor and after about 60-70 divisions, the cell enter the resting phase. Telomerase is an enzyme which adds DNA sequence to the 3’ end of DNA and extends the telomere region. This protein is a DNA polymerase dependent on RNA, which syntheses telomere by reverse transcription. The unique characteristics of telomerase is that RNA matrix for DNA synthesis is an integral component of this enzyme. Telomerase is present in intensively dividing cells and its activity is decreasing with age. In normal cells usually activity of telomerase is undetectable but in cancer cells activity of this enzyme is high. The aim of this work is to present the structure of telomeres and the role of proteins involved in maintaining the structure. In details, the structure and function of the telomerase gene/protein is described, including the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level. The involvement of telomerase in the neoplastic transformation has been also characterized.
PL
Telomer jest to fragment chromosomu zlokalizowany na jego końcu, który zabezpiecza go przed uszkodzeniem podczas kopiowania. Telomery są także czynnikami kontrolującymi liczbę podziałów komórkowych i dlatego uważane są za supresory transformacji nowotworowej, ponieważ ograniczona, ściśle kontrolowana liczba podziałów zapobiega ewentualnemu kumulowaniu się mutacji w komórce. Przyjęto, że obecność 4-6 mutacji w materiale genetycznym jest czynnikiem karcynogennym, a po granicznej liczbie podziałów (około 60-70) komórka wchodzi w fazę spoczynku M1. Enzymem, którego zadaniem jest dobudowanie 3'-końcowego odcinka nici DNA i tym samym wydłużanie sekwencji telomerowych jest enzym telomeraza. Białko to jest polimerazą DNA zależną od RNA, która syntetyzuje telomery na zasadzie odwrotnej transkrypcji. Unikalną cechą telomerazy jest to, że jej integralnym składnikiem jest matryca RNA służąca do syntezy DNA. Telomeraza występuje w intensywnie dzielących się komórkach, a jej aktywność zmniejsza się wraz z wiekiem. W komórkach prawidłowych zwykle nie stwierdza się aktywności telomerazy, natomiast w nowotworowych aktywność tego enzymu zwykle jest podwyższona. W pracy omówiono strukturę sekwencji telomerowych oraz udział białek zaangażowanych w jej utrzymanie. Szczegółowo przedstawiono także strukturę i funkcję genu/białka telomerazy, z uwzględnieniem regulacji ekspresji genu na poziomie transkrypcji. Scharakteryzowano ponadto udział telomerazy w procesach transformacji nowotworowej.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
39
Issue
2
Pages
293-326
Physical description
Contributors
  • Katedra Cytobiochemii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki, zreg@biol.uni.lodz.pl
  • Katedra Cytobiochemii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki
author
  • Katedra Cytobiochemii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki
  • Katedra Cytobiochemii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki
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Document Type
paper
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Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-173e9139-6aea-4390-ac51-79553595a4d7
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