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Zespół bólowy kręgosłupa

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Back pain
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Back pain is a symptom of a number of underlying diseases. The pain syndrome may be due to disorders of bone structures, apophyseal joints, ligaments, fascia, muscles or intervertebral discs, subsequently affecting or not the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. According to the pathophysiological mechanisms precipitating the pain, it can be classified as nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Nociceptive pain is precipitated by the mechanical irritation of nociceptors in ligamentous and muscular structures. Neuropathic pain is caused mostly by the compression of nerve roots. When acute nociceptive pain is not treated in a timely manner, it may develop into chronic neuropathic pain due to functional changes occurring in the central nervous system. Treatment of back pain involves a combination of myorelaxants, analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It starts, as a first choice, with paracetamol because of a small number of its adverse effects. The combined administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics is preferable as it enhances the analgesic effect without increasing the toxicity. A similar combination is that of paracetamol with a mild opioid (tramadol). Neuropathic pain is influenced by several main groups of medications: antidepressants, anticonvulsants, membrane-stabilizing drugs, and GABA-B agonists. Early treatment of back pain is necessary in order to prevent pain chronification. Because of the different treatments of nociceptive and neuropathic pains, it is of particular importance to differentiate between them early.
Ból okolicy kręgosłupa to objaw towarzyszący wielu chorobom. Zespół bólowy mogą powodować nieprawidłowości struktur kostnych, stawów międzykręgowych, więzadeł, powięzi, mięśni czy krążków międzykręgowych, które następnie mogą negatywnie wpływać na rdzeń kręgowy i nerwy obwodowe. Na podstawie mechanizmów patofizjologicznych ból dzielimy na nocyceptywny i neuropatyczny. Ten pierwszy powstaje przez podrażnienie mechaniczne nocyceptorów w strukturach mięśniowych i więzadłowych. Z kolei ból neuropatyczny zwykle jest spowodowany uciskiem na korzenie nerwowe. Gdy ostry ból nocyceptywny nie jest leczony w odpowiednim czasie, może rozwinąć się przewlekły zespół bólowy spowodowany wtórnymi zmianami czynnościowymi w ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym. Leczenie zespołu bólowego kręgosłupa polega na podawaniu środków zwiotczających mięśnie, leków przeciwbólowych i niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych. Lekiem pierwszego rzutu jest paracetamol ze względu na niewielką ilość reakcji niepożądanych. Preferowane jest leczenie skojarzone niesteroidowymi lekami przeciwzapalnymi i środkami przeciwbólowymi, ponieważ zwiększa efekt przeciwbólowy, nie nasilając toksyczności. W skojarzonym leczeniu stosowane jest połączenie paracetamolu z łagodnym opioidem (tramadolem). W przypadku bólu neuropatycznego podaje się różne grupy leków: leki przeciwdepresyjne, przeciwdrgawkowe, leki stabilizujące błonę komórkową i leki z grupy antagonistów receptora GABA-B. Ze względu na różne sposoby leczenia bólu nocyceptywnego i neuropatycznego ważne jest wczesne ustalenie rodzaju bólu, aby nie dopuścić do rozwoju przewlekłego zespołu bólowego.

Physical description
  • Prof. Ivan Milanov, MD, PhD, DSc, “St. Naum” University Hospital for Active Treatment in Neurology and Psychiatry, 1 Louben Roussev str., Sofia 1113, Bulgaria, tel.: +35 9888707880,
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