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2013 | 9 | 4 | 323-330
Article title

Zakrzepowa plamica małopłytkowa – diagnostyka i leczenie

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EN
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura – diagnosis and treatment
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was once diagnosed with five manifestation: thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, nervous system malfunctioning, renal failure and fever. Yet 35% of patients in whom TTP is diagnosed do not develop all manifestations, i.e. neurologic manifestations, renal dysfunction and fever. At present the basis for TTP diagnosis is thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA). The diagnosis includes blood count, blood film, renal function, LDH level. A helpful parameter in diagnosing TTP is ADAMTS13 metalloproteinase and anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies. The treatment starts with therapeutic plasmapheresis. Plasmapheresis should be undertaken even when the diagnosis is not confirmed. It removes ULvWF multimers and acquired anti-ADAMTS13. Plasma transfusion is not as effective as plasmapheresis but it can be used provisionally. The effectiveness of the treatment is assessed by lack of thrombocytopenia normal LDH level, lack of anaemia and neurological disorders. Another therapeutic option is to use glicocorticosteroids and immunoglobulins. In some patients a beneficial procedure may be splenectomy. TTP therapy has recently employed rituximab. It reduces ADAMTS13 inhibitor ratio and increases proteinase activity. Rituximab treatment is reported to have resulted in clinical remissions in the cases where other treatment modalities failed.
PL
Zakrzepowa plamica małopłytkowa (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, TTP) początkowo charakteryzowała się pentadą objawów: małopłytkowością, niedokrwistością hemolityczną mikroangiopatyczną, zaburzeniami układu nerwowego, niewydolnością nerek i gorączką. Jednak u 35% chorych z rozpoznaniem TTP nie stwierdza się wszystkich tych dolegliwości: nie występują u nich objawy neurologiczne, zaburzenia funkcji nerek oraz gorączka. Obecnie zakrzepową plamicę małopłytkową rozpoznaje się na podstawie małopłytkowości i niedokrwistości mikroangiopatycznej. Diagnostyka obejmuje badanie morfologiczne krwi obwodowej wraz z rozmazem, badanie czynności nerek i oznaczenie aktywności LDH. Pomocne w rozpoznaniu jest oznaczenie aktywności metaloproteazy ADAMTS13 i miana przeciwciał anty-ADAMTS13. W terapii w pierwszym rzucie stosuje się plazmaferezę leczniczą – powinna ona zostać przeprowadzona nawet wtedy, gdy diagnoza jest niepewna. Plazmafereza usuwa multimery ULvWF i nabyte przeciwciała skierowane przeciw ADAMTS13. Przetoczenie osocza nie jest tak efektywne jak plazmafereza, lecz może być stosowane tymczasowo. Efekt leczenia oceniany jest na podstawie unormowania się aktywności LDH oraz ustąpienia małopłytkowości, niedokrwistości i zmian neurologicznych. Inną możliwością terapeutyczną jest podawanie glikokortykosteroidów oraz immunoglobulin. U niektórych chorych korzystne może być wykonanie splenektomii. Ostatnio stosuje się także rytuksymab – powoduje on redukcję miana inhibitora ADAMTS13 i wzrost aktywności enzymu. Po leczeniu rytuksymabem odnotowano remisje kliniczne w przypadkach, w których zawiodły inne metody terapii.
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Year
Volume
9
Issue
4
Pages
323-330
Physical description
Contributors
  • Zakład Transfuzjologii Klinicznej, Wojskowy Instytut Medyczny, Warszawa. Kierownik Zakładu: dr hab. n. med. Jolanta Korsak, prof. nadzw. WIM, zt@wim.mil.pl
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-155e9766-2c9d-45fd-981d-dc337980c661
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