Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 16 | 4 | 65–76

Article title

Religiousness and social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes


Title variants

Languages of publication



The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men) randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD = 16.44). All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.









Physical description






  • 1. Lim C, Putnam RD. Religion, social networks, and life satisfaction. American Sociological Review2010; 75(6): 914–933.
  • 2. Nielsen ME, Hatton AT, Donahue MJ. Religiousness, social psychology and behavior. In: Paloutzian RF, Park CL, edi- tors. Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. New York: Guilford Press; 2013. p. 321–329.
  • 3. Krok D.Religijność a jakość życia w perspektywie media- torów psychospołecznych. [Religiousness and quality of life in the perspective of psychosocial mediators]. Opole: RW WT; 2009.
  • 4. Park CL. Religion and meaning. In: Paloutzian RF, Park CL, editors. Handbook of the psychology of religion and spiritu- ality. New York: Guilford Press; 2013. p. 357–378.
  • 5. Wong PTP. Toward a dual–systems model of what makes life worth living. In: P.T.P. Wong PTP, editor. The Human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications. London and NewYork: Routledge; 2012. p. 3–22.
  • 6. Huber S.Zentralität und Inhalt: Ein neues multidimensional- es Messmodell der Religiosität. Opladen: Leske and Budrich; 2003.
  • 7. Huber S.The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS). Religions2012; 3: 710–724.
  • 8. Kelly GA. The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton; 1955.
  • 9. Huber S, Allemand M, Huber OW. The relation between for- giveness by God and human forgivingness. The centrality of the religiosity makes the difference. Archive for the Psychol- ogy of Religion2011; 33: 115–134.
  • 10. Morisson V, Bennet P.An introduction to health psychology. Harlow: Pearson;2006.
  • 11. Ozbay F, Johnson DC, Dimoulas E, Morgan CA, Charney D, Southwick S.Social Support and Resilience to Stress. Psy- chiatry 2007; 4(5): 35–40.
  • 12. Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. International Scholarly Research Notices2012; 1: 1-33.
  • 13. Pargament KI, Ano GG, Wachholtz AB. The religious dimen- sions of coping: Advances in theory, research, and practice. In: Paloutzian RF, Park CL, editors. Handbook of the psy- chology of religion and spirituality. New York: Guilford Press; 2005. p. 479–495.
  • 14. Miller WR, Thoresen CE. Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist2003; 58(1): 24–35.
  • 15. Miller L, Kelly BS. Relationships of religiosity and spirituality with mental health and psychopathology. In: Paloutzian RF, Park CL, editors. Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. New York: Guilford Press; 2005. p. 460–478.
  • 16. Oman D, Thoresen CE. Do religion and spirituality influence health. In: Paloutzian RF, Park CL, editors. Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. New York: Guilford Press; 2005. p. 435–459.
  • 17. Moxey A, McEvoy M, Bowe S, Attia J. Spirituality, religion, so- cial support and health among older Australian adults. Aus- tralasian Journal on Ageing2011; 30(2): 182–188.
  • 18. Lakey B, Orehek E.Relational regulation theory: a new ap- proach to explain the link between perceived social sup- port and mental health. Psychological Review2011; 118(3): 482–495.
  • 19. Thoits PA. Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior2011; 52(2): 145–161.
  • 20. Maulik PK, Eaton WW, Bradshaw CP. The effect of social networks and social support on mental health services use, following a life event, among the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area cohort. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research2011; 38(1): 29-50.
  • 21. Koenig HG, McCullough ME, Larson DB. Handbook of reli- gion and health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.
  • 22. Koenig HG, Moberg DO, Kvale JN. Religious activities and at- titudes of older adults in a geriatric assessment clinic. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society1988; 36(4): 362–374.
  • 23. Argyle M.Psychology and religion. An introduction. London and New York: Routledge; 2000.
  • 24. Zarzycka B.Skala Centralności Religijności S.Hubera [The Centrality of Religiosity Scale of S. Huber]. Roczniki Psycho- logiczne2007; 10(1):133–157.
  • 25. Schulz U, Schwarzer R.Soziale Unterstützung bei der Krankheitsbewältigung. Die Berliner Social Support Skalen (BSSS) [Social support in coping with illness: The Berlin So- cial Support Scales (BSSS)]. Diagnostica2003; 49: 73–82.
  • 26. Łuszczyńska A, Kowalska M, Mazurkiewicz M, Schwarzer R.Berlińskie SkaleWsparcia Społecznego (BSSS): Wyni- ki wstępnych badań nad adaptacją skal i ich własnościami psychometrycznymi [The Berlin Scales of Social Support (BSSS): The results of initial research on adaptation of the scales and their psychometric values]. Studia Psychologic- zne2006; 44(3): 17–27.
  • 27. Goldberg DP, Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson; 1978.
  • 28. Goldberg D, Williams P.Ocena zdrowia psychicznego na podstawie badań kwestionariuszami Dawida Goldberga. Podręcznik dla użytkowników kwestionariuszy GHQ-12 i GHQ-28 [Assessment of mental health on a basis of re- search by using David Goldberg’s questionnaires. Manual for users of GHQ-12 and GHQ-28]. Łódź: Oficyna Wydawn- icza Instytutu Medycyny Pracy; 2001.
  • 29. Koenig HG. Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: a review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry2009; 54(5): 283–291.
  • 30. Moreira-Almeida A, Lotufo Neto F, Koenig HG. (2006). Reli- giousness and mental health: A review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria2006; 28(3): 242–250.
  • 31. Głaz S.The importance of terminal values and religious ex- perience of God’s presence and God’s absence in the lives
  • 32. Park CL. Religiousness/spirituality and health: A meaning systems perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine2007; 30: 319–328.
  • 33. Uchino BN, Bowen K, Carlisle M, Birmingham W.Psycho- logical pathways linking social support to health outcomes: A visit with the “ghosts” of research past, present, and future. Social Science and Medicine2012; 74(7): 949–957.
  • 34. McGuire MB. Religion: The social context. Long Grove: Waveland Press; 2008.
  • 35. Argyle M, Beit-Hallahmi B.The social psychology of religion. Hove: Routledge;2013.
  • 36. Pargament K.I. The psychology of religion and coping: The- ory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press; 1997.

Document Type


Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.