Water-Borne Diseases and Their Challenges in the Coastal of Ampara District in Sri Lanka
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Water satisfies human needs in many ways. Without water, life is not possible in this planet. According to the estimation of the WHO, 4,000 children die every day from water-borne diseases and this condition is worst in developing and under-developed countries. Water-borne diseases are caused by the consumption of contaminated water. Indeed, it is the main agent of transference of the pathogens causing these diseases. The main objective of this paper is ‘to identify the water-borne diseases and their challenges and to suggest remedial measures to overcome the challenges in the study area’. Both primary and secondary data were used to conduct this study and the analysis of this study is tabulated clearly in the data analysis part. The coastal areas of Ampara District (Sainthamaruthu, Karaitivu, Maligaikadu Mawadipalli, Akkaraipattu, Irakkamam, Varipathanchenai, Addalaichenai, Palamunai, Oluvil and Nintavur) face a lot of challenges induced by water-borne diseases. Viruses, bacteria, parasites and protozoa are the main pathogens. Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), cholera, other diarrheal diseases, hepatitis A and E and typhoid fever were identified as the most common diseases in these areas. The causes for the diseases are the contamination of water by improper drainage management, effluent contamination of water sources, over population and the lack of awareness among residents about water-borne diseases. According to the result of this study, controlling water contamination, constructing water purification systems, mending existing drainage systems, following instructions when constructing latrines, examining and remediating contaminated wells and providing awareness among residents are ways to attain the objectives.
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