Water-Borne Diseases and the Their Challenges in the Coastal of Ampara District in Sri Lanka
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Water satisfies human needs in many ways. Without water human being is not possible in this planet. According to the estimation of the WHO, 4,000 children die every day from water-borne diseases and this condition is worst in developing and under-developed countries. Water-borne diseases are caused by the consumption of contaminated water and it is a main agent to transfer the pathogens to cause these diseases. The main objective is ‘to identify the water-borne diseases and their challenges and to suggest remedial measures to overcome the challenges in the study area’. Both primary and secondary data were used to conduct this study and the analysis of this study tabulated clearly in the data analysis part. The coastal areas of Ampara District (Sainthamaruthu, Karaitivu, Maligaikadu Mawadipalli, Akkaraipattu, Irakkamam, varipathanchenai, Addalaichenai, Palamunai, Oluvil and Nintavur) face a lot of challenges by the water-borne diseases. The viruses, bacteria, parasites, and protozoa are the main pathogens to cause these diseases. Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), cholera, other diarrheal diseases, hepatitis A and E and typhoid fever were mainly identified diseases in these areas. The causes for the diseases are the contamination of water by improper drainage management, adding effluents with the water source, over population and the deficiency of the awareness among residents about water-borne diseases. According to the result of this study, many suggestions such as controlling the water contamination, forming water purification system, mending the drainage system, following the instructions when constructing the latrines, examine the contaminated wells and providing awareness among residents were suggested to attain the objectives.
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