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2011 | 9 | 4 | 227-237
Article title

Leczenie systemowe chorych na raka piersi z nadekspresją HER2. Część I

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EN
Systemic treatment of HER2+ breast cancer patients. Part 1
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Abstracts
EN
In Poland, morbidity associated with breast cancer has been increasing over the past 40 years. Current advances in our understanding of breast cancer biology preclude considering this condition as a homogenous nosologic entity. Several subtypes of breast cancer: luminal A (ER+, PR+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+, PR+, HER2+), HER2-dependent (ER-, PR-, HER2+) and the so-called triple-negative or basic (ER-, PR-, HER2-) differ in clinical course and prognosis and require an individualized therapeutic approach. HER2 receptor is one of a family of human growth factor receptors. It may become expressed in different tissues, participating in growth and differentiation of cells. HER2 overexpression in breast cancer cells correlates with worse prognosis, but also enables implementation of targeted, anti-HER2 molecular therapies. As estimated, about 25% of breast tumors are HER2-positive and in these patients the use of “targeted” therapy should be considered. Therefore, at present, standard histological study of breast cancer should include immunohistochemical assessment of HER2 receptor expression. Patients with equivocal result of the IHC study (HER2 2+) require quantitative analysis of HER2 gene copies in cancer cells using the FISH technique. Only patients with HER2 receptor overexpression (HER2 3+) or HER2 gene amplification are candidates for targeted molecular treatment. The first drug of this kind is monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, binding with the HER2 receptor and blocking HER2-dependent intracellular processes, while triggering a cytotoxic cellular antibody-dependent immune reaction directed against cancer cells.
PL
W Polsce od 40 lat obserwuje się rosnącą umieralność z powodu raka piersi. Poszerzająca się wiedza o biologii raka piersi nie pozwala obecnie postrzegać tego nowotworu jako jednorodnej jednostki chorobowej. Różne podtypy raka piersi - luminalny A (ER+ lub PR+ i HER2-), luminalny B (ER+ lub PR+ i HER2+), HER2-zależny (ER- i PR- i HER2+) czy tzw. potrójnie ujemny/podstawny (ER- i PR- i HER2-) - charakteryzują się odmiennym przebiegiem klinicznym i rokowaniem, a także wymagają indywidualnej strategii terapeutycznej. Receptor HER2 należy do rodziny ludzkich receptorów dla czynników wzrostu. Może ulegać ekspresji w różnych tkankach, gdzie zaangażowany jest we wzrost i różnicowanie komórek. Nadekspresja HER2 w komórkach raka piersi związana jest z gorszym rokowaniem, ale także z możliwością zastosowania u tych chorych terapii ukierunkowanych molekularnie anty-HER2. Szacuje się, że około 25% guzów piersi jest HER2-pozytywnych - u tych chorych należy rozważyć wdrożenie leczenia „celowanego”. Z tego względu w chwili obecnej standardowym elementem każdego badania histopatologicznego raka piersi powinna być immunohisto-chemiczna ocena ekspresji receptora HER2. U chorych z niejednoznacznym wynikiem badania IHC (HER2 2+) należy ocenić ilość kopii genu HER2 w komórkach raka piersi metodą FISH. Tylko chore z nadekspresją receptora (HER2 3+) albo amplifikacją genu HER2 kwalifikują się do leczenia ukierunkowanego molekularnie. Pierwszym lekiem z tej grupy jest przeciwciało monoklonalne trastuzumab, które po połączeniu z HER2 nie tylko blokuje procesy wewnątrzkomórkowe zależne od pobudzenia receptora, ale także uruchamia odpowiedź immunologiczną przeciw komórkom nowotworowym w mechanizmie cytotoksyczności komórkowej zależnej od przeciwciał.
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Year
Volume
9
Issue
4
Pages
227-237
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Contributors
  • Klinika Chemioterapii Nowotworów Katedry Onkologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi. Kierownik Kliniki: dr hab. n. med. Piotr Potemski, prof. UM. Correspondence to: Szpital Specjalistyczny im. M. Kopernika w Łodzi, ul. Paderewskiego 4, 93-509 Łódź, tel.: 42 689 54 31, faks: 42 689 54 32
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