Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 61 | 2 | 82-93
Article title

Ornamental swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) response to daminozide and flurprimidol

Title variants
Languages of publication
The ornamental swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) has the potential to produce ornamental potted plants becaused of the highly decorative foliage, characterized by intens color of leaves with large, ribbed blades and wide, grooved stalks arranged in a rosette. Depending on the cultivar, swiss chard may grow up to 60 cm in height. However to obtain compacts and attractive plants it is necessary to use plant growth regulation (PGRs). The aim of the study was to identify the most effective regulator and the method of its application to reduce the size and improve the habit of ornamental swiss chard grown in pots. In two years experiments two growth retardants were used, i.e. daminozide at 4250 mg•dm-3 and flurprimidol at 15 mg•dm-3. The retardants were applied four times at an interval of 10 days by spraying the plants with 20-25 ml of the solution on plants or drenching them with 150 ml of the solution per pot. Control plants were not treated with the retardants. Both the habit and proportions of potted swiss chard may be effectively controlled by drenching it four times with flurpirimidol at a dose of 2.25 mg/pot. Daminozide was not effective in controlling swiss chard habit, irrespective of the application method. Non negative effects or phytotoxicities were found in any drench or spray treatments of daminozide and flurprimidol.
Physical description
  • Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
  • [1] I. Ahmad, B. E. Whipker, J. M. Dole, Flurprimidol preplant corm soaks or drenches affect potted gladiolus production. Acta Horticulture 1104 (2015) 103-108.
  • [2] L. M. Arregui, B. Lasa, A. Lafarga, I. Iraneta, E. Baroja, M. Quemada, Evaluation of chlorophyll meters as tools for N fertilization in winter wheat under humid Mediterranean conditions. European Journal of Agronomy 24 (2006) 140-148.
  • [3] A. M. Armitage, Z. P. Tu, H. M. Vines, The influence of chlormequat and daminozyde on net photosynthesis, transpiration and photorespiration of hybrid geranium. HortScience 19(5) (1984) 705-707.
  • [4] J. Barrett & C. Bartuska, Multiple Topflor drenches for baskets, Greenhouse Product News 5 (2010) 23-25.
  • [5] A. Barker, I. McCall, B. E. Whipker, Growth control of ‘Imperial Dark Blue’ plumbago with ethephon, flurprimidol, and paclobutrazol substrate drenches. HortTechnology 26(4) (2016) 493-496.
  • [6] C. J. Currey, N. J. Flax, K.J. Walters, Foliar sprays of flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole suppress height of seed-propagated New Guinea Impatiens. HortTechnology 26 (2016) 20-25.
  • [7] D. Drost, Swiss chard in the garden. Utah State University, Cooperative extension, (2010).
  • [8] P.M. Filios & W.B. Miller, Effects of flurprimidol, paclobutrazol and uniconazole drenches on Eucomis comosa growth, Acta Horticulture 1002 (2013) 439-443.
  • [9] M. P. N. Gent & R. J. McAvoy, Plant growth retardants in ornamental horticulture: A critical appraisal. (in: Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture and Horticulture. Their role and commercial uses). Ed. M.S. Basra. Haworth Press, New York, (2000) 89-145.
  • [10] J. L. Gibson & B. E. Whipker, Ornamental cabbage and kale growth response to daminozide, paclobutrazol and uniconazole. HortTechnology 11(2) (2001) 226-230.
  • [11] J. L. Gibson, B. E. Whipker, R. A. Cloyd, R. Jones. Success with ornamental vegetables as floricultural crops. NCSU Horticulture Information Leaflet 508 (1999) 7.
  • [12] G. Gianquinto, M. Fecondini, M. Mezzetti, F. Orsini, Steering nitrogen fertilization by means of portable chlorophyll meter reduces nitrogen input and improves quality of fertigated cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud.). Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture 90 (2010) 482-493.
  • [13] G. Gianquinto, F. Orsini, P. Sambo, M. Paino D'Urzo, The use of diagnostic optical tools to assess nitrogen status and to guide fertilization of vegetables, HortTechnology 21(3) (2011) 287-292.
  • [14] M. Hughes, C. Lallo, V. Mlambo, P.G.A. Jennings, Calibration and validation of optical chlorophyll-measuring devices for use in predicting crude protein concentration in tropical grass herbage, Grass and Forage Science (2016) doi:10.1111/gfs.12219.
  • [15] A. Kapczyńska & M. Malik, Planting time and flurprimidol treatment influence the growth and flowering of Lachenalia. HortTechnology 26 (2016) 293-298.
  • [16] F. Larcher, A. Berruti, P. Gullino, V. Scariot, Reducing peat and growth regulator input in camellia pot cultivation. Horticultural Science (Prague) 38 (2011) 35-42.
  • [17] J. Lee, M. I. Gómez, W. B. Miller, Paclobutrazol and flurprimidol control stem elongation of potted star of Bethlehem. HortTechnology 25(4) (2015) 480-486.
  • [18] S. Mahr, Swiss chard. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Master Gardener website, 12.08.2012. (2012).
  • [19] S. C. Mello, R. T. Matsuzaki, R. Campagnol, C. F. Mattiuz, Effects of plant growth regulators in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Acta Horticulture 937 (2012) 245-251.
  • [20] M. Meijon, R. Rodriguez, M. J. Canal, I. Feito, Improvement of compactness and floral quality in azalea by means of application of plant growth regulators. Scientia Horticulturae 119 (2009) 169-176.
  • [21] S. S. Mutlu & N. Kurtulan, Trinexapac-ethyl modifies plant architecture of ornamental pepper. European Journal of Horticultural Science 80 (2015) 280-287.
  • [22] K. Pacewicz & A. Gregorczyk, Comparision values of chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 and N-Tester. Folia Pomeraniae Univesitatis Technologie Steinensis, Agricultura, Alimentaria, Piscaria, Zootechnica 269(9) (2009) 49-46.
  • [23] B. Pennisi, Controlling growth in five species of herbaceous foliage plants, University of Georgia, Extension Circular 925 (2014).
  • [24] A. Pobudkiewicz & J. Treder, Effects of flurprimidol and daminozide on growth and flowering of oriental lily ‘Mona Lisa’, Scientia Horticulturae 110 (2006) 328-333.
  • [25] Z. Podbielkowski, Rośliny użytkowe. WSiP, Warszawa. [in Polish] (1992).
  • [26] R. Pokluda & J. Kuben, Comparison of selected swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla L.) varieties. Horticultural Science (Prague) 29(3) (2002) 114-118.
  • [27] W. Rademacher, Growth retardants: effects on gibberellin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. Annual Review of Plant Biology 51 (2000) 501-531.
  • [28] W. Rademacher, Plant growth regulators: Backgrounds and uses in plant production, Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 34(4) (2015) 845-872.
  • [29] A. Rezazadeh, R. L. Harkess, G. Bi, Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and flowering of potted red firespike. HortTechnology 26 (2016) 6-11.
  • [30] E. Runkle, Successful use of the PGR daminozide. Greenhouse Product News 8 (2013) 62.
  • [31] P. Salachna & A. Zawadzińska, The effects of flurprimidol concentrations and application methods on Ornithogalum saundersiae Bak. grown as a pot plant. African Journal of Agricultural Research 28 (2013) 6625-6628.
  • [32] I. Sprzączka & H. Laskowska, Evaluation of flurprimidol efficiency in pot cultivation of forced tulips. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus 12(2) (2013) 25-33.
  • [33] L. A. Thohirah, M. F. Ramlan, N. Kamalakshi, The effects of paclobutrazol and flurprimidol on the growth and flowering of Curcuma roscoeana and Curcuma alismatifolia. Malaysian Applied Biology 34(2) (2005) 1-5.
  • [34] B. E. Whipker, Additional benefits of PGRs. (in: Plant Growth Regulator Guide 2013). GrowerTalks Magazine. Ed. C. Beytes, Ball Publishing, West Chicago, IL. (2013) 6-7.
  • [35] B. E. Whipker, I. McCall, J. Gibson, T. Cavins, Using Topflor. Part I: Bedding and potted plants. Greenhouse Product News 13 (2003) 20-24.
  • [36] B. E. Van Wyk, Food plants of the world, identification, culinary uses and nutritional value. Briza Publication, Pretoria, South Africa (2005).
  • [37] A. Zawadzińska, P. Salachna, P. Żurawik, A. Dobrowolska, Controlling the growth and flowering of seed–propagated geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey) cultivated in two organic media. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities 16(4) (2013) 1-10.
  • [38] A. Zawadzińska, Effect of foliar application of flurprimidol on the growth and flowering of Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey F1. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura 236(94) (2004) 251-256.
  • [39] A. Zawadzińska, A. Dobrowolska, D. Janicka, The influence of flurprimidol on the morfological traits, flowering and decorative value of Pelargonium hortorum ‘Omega’. Acta Agrobotanica 59(1) (2006) 431-438.
  • [40] A. Zawadzinska, L. Startek, B. Płoszaj, Evaluation of flowering and decorative value of Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey treated with flurprimidol. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 483 (2002) 311-319.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.