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2018 | 114 | 218-229
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Appraisal of Phytochemical Properties and Antidiabetic Activities of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Ethanolic Leaves Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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The phytochemical properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum and its antidiabetic properties on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats were evaluated. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenes, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones in T. conophorum leaf extract. Quantitative phytochemical screening of T. conophorum revealed the presence of saponins (8.77 ± 1.15 mg/kg), tannins (7.84 ± 0.62 mg/kg), alkaloids (5.49 ± 0.14 mg/kg), flavonoids (5.26 ± 0.16 mg/kg), cardiac glycosides (2.13 ± 0.45 mg/kg), terpenes (1.47 ± 0.30 mg/kg) and anthraquinones (1.33 ± 0.18 mg/kg). The toxicity test of the extracts produced various degree of toxicity ranging from writhing, decreased respiration, convulsion to mortality. The intensities of these effects were proportional to the dose administered. The LD50 for T. conophorum was 1369.31 mg/kg. The results of the influence of ethanolic leaves of T. conophorum on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose level (BGL) as time of treatments increases. The leaves extracts of T. conophorum significantly (p<0.05) decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic rats on day 14 compared to diabetic untreated (control) rats. The BGL of diabetic rats treated with oral hypoglycemic agent alone were significantly (p<0.05) different from control group on day 14. The presence of these biologically active compounds suggest that the plant could serve as potential sources of drugs and their secondary metabolites could exert some biological activities when taken by animals. The extracts of T. conophorum also produced a similar reduction in blood sugar level as the standard hypoglycemic drug (Glibenclamide). This may be due to its ability to enhance insulin secretion like the standard drug. This positive result confirms why herbalists use this leaf for the management of diabetes.
Physical description
  • Department of Science Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Nigeria
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Ritman University, Nigeria
  • Department of Science Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Nigeria
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria
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