Nonlinear optical properties of photonic crystals
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A model for optical switching and limiting in 2D photonic crystals of square and hexagonal lattice structures having Kerr nonlinearity is introduced with a side-coupled cavity and a waveguide. MATLAB was used to implement FDTD algorithm with perfectly matched layer boundaries. Photonic crystals formed from AlGaAs, GaAs, ZnS and Ge, rods in air were simulated to obtain the optimal parameters. The best refractive index range for the proposed switch and the limiter to be operated is 2.5 to 3.2. The results showed best performance for group III-V materials. The lattice constant for the most commonly used telecommunication wavelength (1.55 µm) was found to be 0.5479 µm for AlGaAs and 0.550 µm for GaAs respectively. As an optical limiter, AlGaAs showed the best performance with the threshold refractive index change at 0.05.
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