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2014 | 14 | 1 | 34-42
Article title

Rzadkie – monogenetyczne – przyczyny udaru mózgu związanego z małymi naczyniami

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Title variants
EN
Uncommon – monogenetic – causes of small-vessel stroke
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Abstracts
EN
A brain stroke is the most common cause of disability and the third cause of mortality among adults. Every year 6.15 million people in the world die of stroke. According to a current and commonly used WHO definition, the stroke is a rapid occurrence of focal or global neurological deficit of strictly cerebrovascular cause that persists beyond 24 hours. It is estimated that even up to 85–90% of strokes is caused by an ischaemic aetiology, the remainder by haemorrhagic or subarachnoid bleeding. The aim of the paper is to acquaint clinicians with rare, nevertheless occurring in practice genetic causes of strokes connected with single gene mutation. The mentioned disorders are included in a wide spectrum of so called nonhypertensive, cerebral small-vessel diseases. Commonly they occur with concomitant syndromes such as progressive cognitive disturbances or spinal chronic pain syndromes. The multitude of disorders of theoretically unrelated organs also should be alarming although, according to the literature, there are known some oligosymptomatic cases. Additionally, in many cases, unclear radiological image seems to suggest the need for further investigations. After reading this article, clinicians should keep in mind that they especially inquisitively need to search for the reason of stroke in young patients without obvious hypertension in anamnesis, with recurrent vascular episodes, with abnormalities on physical examination that suggest the presence of certain complex of syndromes. Simultaneously, coexistence of typical risk factors such as using drugs affecting thrombosis, arterial hypertension or metabolic disorders should not excuse ignoring the rare diseases. An interdisciplinary team-work of specialists of cardiology, nephrology, dermatology or genetics seems to be invaluable for establishing the diagnosis in this cases.
PL
Udar mózgu to najczęstsza przyczyna niepełnosprawności i trzeci co do częstości powód zgonów wśród osób dorosłych. Wskutek udaru corocznie umiera na świecie około 6,15 mln ludzi. Według wciąż aktualnej i powszechnie stosowanej definicji WHO udar mózgu to nagłe wystąpienie ogniskowego lub uogólnionego zaburzenia czynności mózgu, które trwa dłużej niż 24 godz. i wynika wyłącznie z przyczyn naczyniowych. Szacuje się, że nawet około 85–90% udarów mózgu ma etiologię niedokrwienną, resztę stanowią udary krwotoczne i SAH (subarachnoid haemmorhage, krwotok podpajęczynówkowy). Celem pracy jest przybliżenie rzadkich – ale spotykanych w praktyce – genetycznych przyczyn udaru mózgu związanych z mutacjami w pojedynczych genach. Omówione jednostki chorobowe wpisują się w szerokie spektrum tzw. chorób małych naczyń mózgowych niezwiązanych z nadciśnieniem. Ich występowaniu często towarzyszą inne patologie ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, takie jak postępujące zaburzenia poznawcze czy przewlekłe zespoły bólowe kręgosłupa. Niepokoić powinna także mnogość zaburzeń ze strony innych, pozornie niepowiązanych funkcjonalnie narządów, chociaż według piśmiennictwa znane są przypadki skąpoobjawowe. Dodatkowo w wielu przypadkach niejednoznaczny obraz radiologiczny sugeruje potrzebę rozszerzenia diagnostyki. Warto, by klinicyści pamiętali, że należy szczególnie wnikliwie poszukiwać przyczyny udaru mózgu u osób młodych bez ewidentnego wywiadu w kierunku nadciśnienia tętniczego oraz z nawracającymi epizodami naczyniowymi i odchyleniami w badaniu fizykalnym – wskazującymi na obecność określonych zespołów. Jednocześnie współistnienie typowych czynników ryzyka, czyli stosowania leków wpływających na hemostazę, nadciśnienia tętniczego czy zaburzeń metabolicznych, nie zwalnia z obowiązku rozważania chorób rzadkich. W diagnostyce tych jednostek chorobowych nieoceniona wydaje się inter– dyscyplinarna współpraca specjalistów z dziedziny kardiologii, nefrologii, dermatologii i genetyki.
Discipline
Year
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
34-42
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii z Oddziałem Udarowym Uniwersyteckiego Szpitala Klinicznego im. WAM, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii z Oddziałem Udarowym, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, USK im. WAM, ul. Żeromskiego 113, 90-546 Łódź
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii z Oddziałem Udarowym Uniwersyteckiego Szpitala Klinicznego im. WAM, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
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