The Effects of Two Different HIIT Resting Protocols on Children’s Swimming Efficiency and Performance
Languages of publication
On children, HIIT program is being used by coaches as a way of rapid improvement. The values of the intervals vary from the target of the period. The study’s purpose was to find out if HIIT in different interval protocols improves children’s swimming performance. In the study participated 18 rookie swimmers (9 boys and 9 girls), aged 11.6 ±1.5. The HIIT protocol in both groups included the set of 2 * 4 * 17.5 m (freestyle and freestyle kick, respectively). The first group (HIIT 1) had a 10 sec interval while the second (HIIT 2) - a 1 min between the HIIT reps. Swimmers performed in 35 m freestyle (35F) and 2 min free kick (2’ FK) trials at maximum effort. The performance (T), the number of strokes (SN) and the stroke length (SL) were measured at 35F, the covered distance at 2' FK and the heart rate (HR), the rated perception of exertion (RPE) at 35F and 2’ FK. Regarding the results, all parameters improved significantly (p = 0.01). The use of a 4-week swimming program with training 4 times per week, in which two were HIIT, improved children’s performance and efficiency in swimming. Intervals of 10 sec or 1 min did not alter the improvement.
- Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
- School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
- Balsom, P.D., Seger, J.Y., Sjödin, B., Ekblom, B. (1992). Maximal-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect of Recovery Duration. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 528–533.
- Buchheit, M. (2010). Performance and physiological responses to repeated – sprint and jump sequences. Europian Journal Applied Physiology, 110, 1007–1018.
- Buchheit, M., Bishop, D., Haydar, B., Nakamura, F.Y., Ahmaidi, S. (2010). Physiological Responses to Shuttle Repeated-Sprint Running. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 402–9.
- Buchheit, M., Simpson, B.M., Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2013). Repeated High-Speed Activities during Youth Soccer Games in Relation to Changes in Maximal Sprinting and Aerobic Speeds. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 40–48.
- Buchheit, T.M., Millet, G., Parisy, A., Pourchez, S., Laursen, P., Ahmaidi, S. (2008). Supramaximal Training and Postexercise Parasympathetic Reactivation in Adolescents. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 40, 362–371.
- Dellal, A., Varliette, C., Owen, A., Chirico, E.N., Pialoux, V. (2012). Small-Sided Games Versus Interval Training in Amateur Soccer Players. Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 26, 2712–2720.
- Ferrari, B.D., Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., Castagna, C., Bishop, D., Wisloff, U. (2008). Sprint vs. interval training in football. Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 668–674.
- Furlan, R., Piazza, S., Dell’Orto, S., Gentile, E., Cerutti, S., Pagani, M., Malliani, A. (1993). Early and late effects of exercise and athletic training on neural mechanisms controlling heart rate. Cardiovascular Research, 27 (3), 482–488.
- Geenen, D.L., Gilliam, T.B., Crowley, D., Moorehead-Steffens, C., Rosenthal, A. (1982). Echocardiographic measures in 6 to 7-year-old children after an 8-month exercise program. The American Journal of Cardiology, 49 (8), 1990–1995.
- Helgerud, J., Engen, L.C., Wisloff, U., Hoff, J. (2001). Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 33, 1925–1931.
- Laursen, P.B. (2010). Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scandinavian Journal Medicine Science Sports, 20, 1–10.
- Laursen, P.B., Jenkins, D.G. (2002). The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training. Sports Medicine, 32, 53–73.
- Marinho, D.A, Amorim, R.A, Costa, A.M., Marques, M.C., Pérez-Turpin, J.A., Neiva, H.P. (2011). “Anaerobic” critical velocity and swimming performance in young swimmers. Journal of Human Sport Exercise, 6 (1), 80–86.
- Mendez-Villanueva, A., Buchheit, M., Kuitunen, S., Poon, T.K., Simpson, B, Peltola, E. (2010). Is the Relationship Between Sprinting and Maximal Aerobic Speeds in Young Soccer Players Affected by Maturation? Pediatric Exercise Science, 22, 497–510.
- Mosey, T. (2009). High intensity interval training in youth soccer players: using fitness testing results practically. The Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 17, 49–51.
- Nussinovitch, U., Elishkevitz, K.P., Kaminer, K., Nussinovitch, M., Segev, S., Volovitz, B., Nussinovitch, N. (2011). The Efficiency of 10-Second Resting Heart Rate for the Evaluation of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Indices. Pacing Clinic Electrophysiology, 34, 1498–1502.
- Papadimitriou, K., Savvoulidis, S. (2017). Does High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), have an effect on young swimmer’s performance? Journal Swimming Research, 25, 1.
- Papadimitriou, K., Loupos, D., Tsalis, G., Manou, V. (2017). Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on swimmers’ leg mobility and performance. Journal Physical Education and Sport, 17, 663–668.
- Seiler, S., Hetlelid, K.J. (2005). The impact of rest duration on work intensity and RPE during interval training. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 37, 1601–1607.
- Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Achtzehn, S., De Marees, M., Mester, J. (2009a). High intensity exercise “HIT” in children: Results from different disciplines. A paper presented at the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Oslo, Norway, pp. 24–27.
- Sperlich, B., Haegele, M., Heilemann, I., Zinner, C., De Maree, M., Achtzen, S., Mester, J. (2009b). 5 Weeks of high intensity vs. volume training in 9–12-year-old swimmers. ACSM 56th Annual Meeting. Seattle, Washington, Presentation Number 959.
- Sperlich, B., Zinner, C., Heilemann, I., Kjendlie, P.L., Holmberg, H.C., Mester, J. (2010). High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9–11-year-old swimmers. European Journal Applied Physiology, 110, 1029–1036.
- Tabata, I., Irisawa, K., Kouzaki, M., Nishimura, K., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M. (1997). Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercises. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 29, 390–395.
- Tabata, I., Nishimura, K., Kouzaki, M., Hirai, Y., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M., Yamamoto, K. (1996). Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 28, 1327–1330.
Publication order reference