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2016 | 32 | 95-105
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Reflection on the Intellectual Legacy of the Sokoto Jihad

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The Sokoto Jihad was a major Islamic movement in the 19th century West Africa. It was the revolution that influenced other ones that took place at Masina and Tukolor. The Sokoto Jihad brought profound transformations in the social, political and economic spheres of Hausaland and beyond. Some of such changes include the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate, the revival of Islam, and the development of learning and scholarship. In fact, the intellectual development brought by the Jihad was the most important impact of the movement because knowledge is the most valuable machinery in the spread and development of Islam. This paper therefore argue that Sokoto Jihad has achieved its aims since already, the essence of the Sokoto Jihad, as evidenced from the ample writings left by the triumvirate, was the revival of Islam through promotion of learning and scholarship. Consequently, it could be observed that, after the collapse of the Caliphate, the legacy of scholarship continues till the present time. The paper perceives the Jihad as solely intellectual movement and thus contributes in debunking the contention that Jihad was a class struggle, or waged for tribal, economic or political reasons.
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32
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95-105
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References
  • [1] U.M Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model: A Study of the Origin, Developmment and Fruition of the Jihad of Uthman bn. Foduye (1754-1817), Special edition for Islamic Vocation Course (IVC), Muslim Students Society of Nigeria, Katsina, Zone A, December, 2011, p. 17
  • [2] U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model...
  • [3] See M.U Bunza, “A Reflectiion on the 200 years of the Sakkwato Caliphate,” in The Sokoto Caliphate,: A Legacy of Scholarship and Good Governace
  • [4] M.U Bunza, “A Reflection on the 200 years of the Sakkwato Caliphate”…,
  • [5] A.M. Nour, “An Elementary Study in the Fiqh of Danfodio”, in Y.B Usman, ed., Studies in the History of the Sokoto Calipahate, Zaria, Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1979, pp. 221-223.
  • [6] A.M. Nour, “An Elementary Study in the Fiqh of Danfodio”…,
  • [7] U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model...
  • [8] See I. A. B. Balogun, “ Uthman Danfodio, the Mujahddin of West Africa,” in YB. Usman, Studies in the History of Sokoto Caliphate... p. 476
  • [9] See A. A. Gwandu, “Abdullahi Fodiyo as a Muslim Jurist,” Ph.D thesis, Durham, 1977 and M.T. Minna, “Sultan Muhammad Bello and his intellectual contribution to the Sokoto Caliphate”, Ph.D Thesis, London, University of London, 1983.
  • [10] I. Suleiman, The Islamic State and Challenges of History, London, Mansell Publishers, 1987
  • [11] I. Suleiman, A Revolution in History; The Jihad of Usman Danfodio, London, Mansell, 1986, p. 2.
  • [12] I. Suleiman, A Revolution in History... p. 5.
  • [13] M. Last, “ Reform in West Africa, the Jihad of the 19th century,” in J.F.A. Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds)., History of West Africa, Vol. 2, London, Longman, 1974, p. 1.
  • [14] A. Smith, “The Contemporary Significance of the Academic Ideals of the Sokoto Jihad,” in YB. Usman, Studies in the History of Sokoto Caliphate... pp. 245-246
  • [15] U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model...p. 17
  • [16] U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model...
  • [17] A. Smith, “The Contemporary Significance of the Academic Ideals of the Sokoto Jihad,”
  • [18] M.U Bunza, “A Reflection on the 200 years of the Sakkwato Caliphate”…, p. 91
  • [19] M. U. Bunza has written valuable works on contributions of Jihad leaders to the devlopment of science, see some of his works; M. U. Bunza, “Arabic Medicinal Manuscripts of Pre-Colonial Northern Nigeria: A Descriptive List,” in Annual Review OF Islam In Africa, Issue no. 11, 2012. M.U Bunza, “The contribution of Sultan Muhammad Bello to the development of Medical Sciences in 19th Century Hausaland,” MA Dissertation, Department of History, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, 1995. M.U. Bunza “Science in the History of the Sokoto Caliphate: A study of Nubdhah fi adwiyat al-Dedan of Sultan Muhammad Bello,” in Degel, Journal of FAIS, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto, pp.37-41. M. U. Bunza and S. Muhammad, “The Role of Islamic scholars in preservation and utilization of medicinal plants in Northern Nigeria: A study of Qaul al- Senna of Sultan Muhammad Bello,” Degel, Journal of FAIS, Usmanu Danfodio University, pp. 73-80.
  • [20] O.S.A. Isma’il, “Some Reflections on the Literature of the Jihad and the Caliphate,” in Y. B. Usman, Studies in the History of the Sokoto Caliphate.., p. 166
  • [21] U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model..., p. 18. See also J. Boyd, “ Nana Asma’u Fodio: A Description of the Works she wrote Between 1836 and 1840, ” Facts, Value and Nigerian Historiography, Essays in Honour of Professor Abdullahi Smith, Zaria, Ahamdu Bello University Press, November, 1980, pp. 117-125
  • [22] In U.M. Bugaje, The Sakkwato Model..., see also S.W. Junaidu, “ Arabic Poetry as a means of contact with Scholars in and outside the Sakkwato Caliphate” in Journal of the Nigerian Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies, vol. 7, Ijebu-Ode, Shebiotimo, September, 2004 See also A. G. Saidu, “The Significance of the Shehu’s Sermons and Poems in Ajami”, in Y. B. Usman, Studies in the History of the Sokoto Caliphate.. pp. 194-195.
  • [23] Ajami is described as a piece of writing in which the characters are Arabic and the language is non-Arabic. Ajami developed in Northern Nigeria in which Arabic characters are used in languages such as Hausa, Fulfulde, Kanuri, Nupe and Yoruba. A number of works were conducted on the recovery and preservation of Ajami documents. See Y.Y. Ibrahim, I. M. Jumare, M. Hamman, S. Bala (eds)., Arabic/Ajami Manuscripts: Resource For the Development of New Knowledge, Kaduna, Arewa House, 2010
  • [24] A. B. Fafunwa, History of Education in Nigeria, London, George Allen and Unwin, 1974, p. 56
  • [25] A. B. Fafunwa, History of Education inNigeria…
  • [26] A. B. Fafunwa, History of Education in Nigeria
  • [27] A. Bako, “Reflections on the Colonial Language Policy and its impact on Scholarship in the Nigerian Emirates,” in H. Bobboyi and A.M. Yakub (eds)., The Sokoto Caliphate; History and Legacies, 1804-2004, vol. 1, Kaduna, Arewa House, 2006, p. 311
  • [28] H.M. Maishanu, Five Centuries of Historical Writings in Hausaland and Bornu, 1500-2000, Lagos, Longman, 2007, p. 11
  • [29] M.U. Bunza, “Arabic Manuscripts as Alternative Sources in the Re-construction of Northern Nigerian History,” in Y. Y. Ibrahim et al (eds), Arabic/Ajami Manuscripts: Resource For the Development of New Knowledge…pp. 237-256
  • [30] M.U. Bunza, “Arabic Manuscripts…”
  • [31] A. Smith, “A Neglected Theme of West African History: The Islamic Revolutions of the 19th Century,” in G. Kwanashie, et al (eds)., A Little New Light, Selected Historical Writings of Professor Abdullahi Smith, Zaria, Gaskiya Corporation, 1987, pp. 131-135.
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-0983d80e-8fbb-4c9a-b276-8d2b14530c05
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