Extraction of edible oil from the pulp of Persea americana (Mill) using cold process method
Languages of publication
This paper investigated the extraction of edible oil from the pulp of avocado fruit by means of the cold process. Avocado pear fruit was collected washed, peeled, de-stoned, blended, and heated at 60 °C for 90 mins and then malaxed. No chemical solvent was introduced, as the blending of the pulp required only the addition of water. The process involves centrifuging the Avocado pulp via a laboratory centrifuge at 7000 rpm for 15 mins. While the solid pulp remained in the bottom, the liquid (oil-water mixture) floated on top. The mixture was dried for an hour using a heating mantle and then filtered using filter paper to remove the suspended pulp particles. A dark greenish brown oil was thus obtained with a yield of 6.3 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil in terms of acid value, saponification value, ester value, % FFA, % glycerine, specific density and moisture content were found to be 23 mg KOH/g oil, 199.7 mg KOH/g oil, 176.7 mg KOH/g oil, 11.5%, 9.66%, 1.19 g/L and 75%, respectively. This process is devoid of the use of any reagent and hence, is suitable for consumption. The process requires limited labour and low temperatures, thus its nutrients, flavour, and richness are safeguarded and the product retains its healthy properties.
- Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic in Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria
- Research Coordinating Unit: Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hills, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria
- Department of Chemical Sciences, Edwin Clark University, P.M.B. 101, Kiagbodo, Delta State, Nigeria
-  Guillen M. D and Cabo N (2002). Fourier transform infrared spectra data versus peroxide and anisidine values to determine oxidative stability of edible oils. Food Chemistry 77: 503–10.
-  Harwood L., Laurence M., Moody H. and Christopher J. (13 Jun 2013). Experimental organic chemistry: Principles and Practice (Illustrated ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 122–125.
-  Hodgman, C.D and N.A. Lange (1924). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Cleveland: Chemical Rubber Co. 312-313
-  John M. Graham and D. Rickwood (1997). Sub cellular Fractionation: A Practical Approach. Oxford University Press, p. 234
-  Rizvi S, Raza, S. T, Ahmed, F, Ahmad, A, Abbas, S and Mahdi, F (2014). The Role of Vitamin E in Human Health and Some Diseases. Sultan Qaboos Univiversity Medical Journal 14(2): 157–165.
-  Lawrence, B. (2000). Essential Oils: From Agriculture to Chemistry. NAHA’s World of Aromatherapy III Conference Proceedings, pp. 8–26.
-  Ogunwusi A.A. and Ibrahim H.D (2016). Economic Significance of Avocado Pear in Nigeria. Developing country studies 6(3): 1-10
-  Susan R. Mikkelsen & Eduardo Cortón. Bioanalytical Chemistry, Ch. 13. Centrifugation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Mar 4, 2004, pp. 247-267.
-  T.P. Human 2007. Oil as a by-product of the avocado. South Afr. Avocado Grow Assoc. Yearbook 10: 159-62.
-  Tanaka, Y., Takeshi, O (2004). Extraction of Phospholipids from salmon roe with supercritical carbon dioxide and an entrainer. Journal of Oleo Science 53 (9): 417–424. doi:10.5650/jos.53.417
-  Werman, M. J. and Neeman, I. 1986. Oxidatice Stability of Avocado Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 63, No 3. 355-360.
-  Williams, D. (1996). The Chemistry of Essential Oils. Dorset, England: Micelle Press.
-  Zhi-Hua L, Pei M, Wan L, Hui X, Lu H, Si-Wei L, Xin Z, and Jian-Cheng T (2014). Association between serum free fatty acid levels and possible related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction. BMC Cardiovascular Disorder, 14: 159.
-  Vishwa N. Verma, Application of atomic absorption spectroscopy to food sciences (A study on Persea americana Mill – Avocado). World Scientific News 49(2) (2016) 104-116
-  Tsegay Hiwot, Determination of oil and biodiesel content, physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from avocado seed (Persea americana) grown in Wonago and Dilla (gedeo zone), southern Ethiopia. World Scientific News 58 (2016) 133-147
-  E.H. Swisher, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society November 1988, Volume 65, Issue 11, pp 1704–1713
-  Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Lucas Carvalho e Silva; Alessandra de Paiva Alves; Marcelo La Selva; Adimilson Bosco Chitarra. Quality of fresh-cut avocado (Persea americana Mill.) stored under different temperatures. Ciênc. agrotec. vol. 33, no. 4, Lavras July/Aug. 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542009000400021
-  Mark S Hoddle, Sueo Nakahara, Phil A Phillips. Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural enemies on avocado (Persea americana Miller). Biological Control Volume 24, Issue 3, July 2002, Pages 251-26
-  Kate IE, Lucky OO. Biochemical evaluation of the traditional uses of the seeds of Persea americana Mill., (Family: Lauraceae). World J Med Sci. 2009;4:143–6
-  Luiz Gustavo Lacerda, Tiago André Denck Colman, Tabata Bauab, Marco Aurélio da Silva Carvalho Filho, Ivo Mottin Demiate, Eliane Carvalho de Vasconcelos, Egon Schnitzle. Thermal, structural and rheological properties of starch from avocado seeds (Persea americana, Miller) modified with standard sodium hypochlorite solutions. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry February 2014, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 1893–1899
-  Philip F. Builders, Abigail Nnurum, Chukwuemaka C. Mbah, Anthony A. Attama and Rahul Manek. The physicochemical and binder properties of starch from Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae). Starch – Stärke Volume 62, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages 309–320
-  J. J. Pérez-Arévalo, A. J. Callejón-Ferre, B. Velázquez-Martí, M. D. Suárez-Medina, Prediction models based on higher heating value from the elemental analysis of neem, mango, avocado, banana, and carob trees in Guayas (Ecuador), Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2015, 7, 5, 053122
-  Luiz Gustavo Lacerda, Tiago André Denck Colman, Tabata Bauab, Marco Aurélio da Silva Carvalho Filho, Ivo Mottin Demiate, Eliane Carvalho de Vasconcelos, Egon Schnitzler, Thermal, structural and rheological properties of starch from avocado seeds (Persea americana, Miller) modified with standard sodium hypochlorite solutions, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2014, 115, 2, 1893
Publication order reference