Epidemiological analysis of the environmental health impact of annual ivermectin mass drug administration on clinical manifestation of onchocerciasis
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Epidemiological studies on the impact of onchocerciasis control in some parts of Imo State, Nigeria was undertaken between 2008 and 2012 to determine the impact of annual ivermectin mass drug administration on clinical manifestation of Onchocerciasis. The survey took place in the nine villages of Okigwe local government area, which have base line data at Carter Center Imo/Abia project. Permission to carry out this survey was obtained from Ministry of Health as well as informed consent was obtained from the individual volunteers. Skin snip for microfilaria (mf), community microfilaria load (cmfl), physical examination, visual screening, were carried out among 960 volunteers comprising of 511 males and 499 females from age group 5-62+ in the sampled villages in accordance with the epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis protocol. The results shows 63.7% reduction against 47.2% nodule prevalence in 1995 to 14.3% nodule prevalence in 2012 (p<0.001). Similarly there is 36.3% reduction rate of mf prevalence from 51.8% mf rate to 33.0% in 2012 after 15 years of mass drug administration (p<0.005). CMFL is generally low among the sampled villages 0.90 mf per milligram (p<0.001). An Onchocercal symptom was found among individuals in the sampled villages 47.2%. Also mf prevalence was rare in age group 5-15(17%), subsequently increased with age and highest in age group 56-62+ (26%). However, because microfilaria (mf) was found among the subjects, is suggestive of its potential continued transmission and therefore Onchocerciasis is not yet eliminated.
- Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
- Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kampala International University, Kampala, Uganda, firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Carter Centre South-East Integrated Programs, Owerri, Nigeria
- Department of Biological Sciences, Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria
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