CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS
Languages of publication
This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05). Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions.
- 1. Abernethy B. Visual search in sport and ergonomics its relationship to selective attention and performer expertise. Hum Perform. 1988;1:205–235.
- 2. Bard C, Fleury M. Analysis of visual search activity during sport problem situations. J Hum Mov Stud. 1976;3:214–222.
- 3. Ripoll H, Fleurance P. What does keeping one’s eye on the ball mean? Ergonomics. 1988;31:1647–1654.
- 4. Savelsbergh GJP, van der Kamp J, Williams AM, Ward P. Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers. Ergonomics2005;48:1686–1697.
- 5. Singer RN, Williams AM, Frehlich SG, Janelle CM, Radlo SJ, Barba DA, Bouchard LJ New frontiers in visual search: an exploratory study in live tennis situations. Res Q Exerc Sport1998;69:290–296.
- 6. Vickers JN. Visual control when aiming at a far target. Perception1996;22:342– 354.
- 7. Williams AM, Davids K, Burwitz L, Williams JG, Visual search strategies in experienced and inexperienced soccer players. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1994;65:127–135.
- 8. Abernethy B.Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport. Int. J. Sport Psychol. 1991;22:189–210.
- 9. Mann DTY, Williams AM, Ward P, Janelle CM. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: a meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007;29:457–478.
- 10. Vaeyens R, Lenoir M, Williams AM, Mazyn L, Philippaerts MR. The effects of task constraints on visual search behavior and decision-making skill in youth soccer players. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007;29:147–169.
- 11. Williams AM, Janelle CM, Davids K.Constraints on the search for visual information in sport. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2004;2:301–318.
- 12. Cañal-Bruland R, Mooren M, Savelsbergh GJP. Differentiating experts’ anticipatory skills in beach volleyball. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82:667–74.
- 13. Vickers JN, Adolphe RM. Gaze behaviour during a ball tracking and aiming skill. Int J Sports Vis. 1997;4:18–27.
- 14. Abernethy B, Gill PG, Parks SL, Packer ST. Expertise and the perception of kinematic and situational probability information. Perception2001;30:233– 252.
- 15. Starkes JL, Edwards P, Dissanayake P, Dunn T. A new technology and field test of advance cue usage in volleyball. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1995;66:162–167.
- 16. Wright DL, Pleasants F, Gomez-Meza M.Use of advanced visual cue sources in volleyball. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1990;12:406–414.
- 17. Hernandez E, Urena A, Miranda MT, Ona A.Kinematic analysis of volleyball setting cues that affect anticipation in blocking. J Hum Mov Stud. 2004;47:285–301.
- 18. Piras A, Lobietti R, Squatrito S.A study of saccadic eye movement dynamics in volleyball: comparison between athletes and non-athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2010;50:99–108.
- 19. Farrow D.Abernethy B.Do expertise and the degree of perception-action coupling affect natural anticipatory performance?Perception2003;32:1127–1139.
- 20. Land MF, Furneaux S.The knowledge base of the oculomotor system. Philos Trans R Soc. 1997;352:1231–1239.
- 21. Land MF, Mcleod P.From eye movements to actions: how batsmen hit the ball. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:1340–1345.
- 22. Vaeyens R, Lenoir M, Williams AM, Philippaerts MR. Mechanisms underpinning successful decision making in skilled youth soccer players: an analysis of visual search behaviors. J Mot Behav. 2007;39:395–408.
- 23. Afonso J, Garganta J, Mcrobert A, Williams AM, Mesquita I.The perceptual cognitive processes underpinning skilled performance in volleyball: Evidence from eye-movements and verbal reports of thinking involving an in situ representative task. J Sport Sci Med. 2012;11:339–345.
- 24. Afonso J, Garganta J, Mcrobert A, Williams AM, Mesquita I.Visual search behaviours and verbal reports during film-based and in situ representative tasks in volleyball. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14:177–184.
- 25. Shim J, Carlton LG, Chow JW, Cae WS. The use of anticipatory visual cues by highly skilled tennis players. J Mot Behav. 2005;37:164–175.
- 26. Smeeton NJ, Williams AM, Hodges NJ, Ward P.The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. J Exp Psychol. 2005;11:98–110.
- 27. Nougier V, Rossi B.The development of expertise in orienting of attention. Int J Sport Psychol. 1999;30:246–260.
- 28. Ripoll H, Kerlirzin Y, Stein JF, Reine B, Analysis of information processing, decision making, and visual strategies in complex problem solving sport situations. Hum Mov Sci. 1995;14:325–349.
- 29. Zwierko T, Osiński W, Lubiński W, Czepita D, Florkiewicz B.Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players. J Hum Kinet. 2010;23:21–27.
- 30. Savelsbergh GJP, Williams AM, van der Kamp J, Ward P.Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. J Sports Sci. 2002;20:279– 287.
- 31. Henderson J.Human gaze control during real–world scene perception. Trends Cogn Sci. 2003;7:498–504.
- 32. Oudejans RR, Michaels CF, Bakker FC. The effects of baseball experience on movement initiation in catching fly balls. J Sports Sci. 1997;15:587–595.
- 33. Savelsbergh GJP. Tussen de Linies spelen. Oratie, Amsterdam: faculteit der Bewegingswetenschappen, Vrĳe Universiteit. Amsterdam; 2009: p24.
- 34. Higuchi T, Cinelli ME, Patla AE. Gaze behavior during locomotion through apertures: the effect of locomotion forms. Hum Mov Sci. 2009;28:760–71.
- 35. Vickers JN. Perception, cognition, and decision training: the quiet eye in action. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2007.
- 36. Kundel HL, Nodine CF, Conant EF, Weinstein SP. Holistic component of image perception in mammogram interpretation: Gaze-tracking study. Radiology2007;242:396–402.
- 37. Gegenfurtner A, Lehtinen E, Säljö R. Expertise differences in the comprehension of visualizations: a meta-analysis of eye-tracking research in professional domains. Educ Psychol Rev. 2011;23:523–552.
- 38. Alves H, Voss MW, Boot WR, Deslandes A, Cossich V, Salles JI, Kramer AF. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite volleyball players. Front Psychol. 2013;4:1–9.
- 39. Jafarzadehpur E, Aazami N, Bolouri B. Comparison of saccadic eye movements and facility of ocular accommodation in female volleyball players and non- players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;17:186–190.
- 40. Allard F, Starkes J. Perception in sport: Volleyball. J Sport Psychol. 1980;2:22-23
- 41. Sibley B, Etnier J. Time course of attention and decision making during a volleyball set. Res Q Exercise Sport. 2004;75:102-106
Publication order reference