Evaluating the Behavior of Metals in soil environment
Languages of publication
Metals added to soil will normally be retained at the soil surface. Movement of metals into other environmental compartments, i.e., ground water, surface water, or the atmosphere, should be minimal as long as the retention capacity of the soil is not exceeded. The extent of movement of a metal in the soil system is intimately related to the solution and surface chemistry of the soil and to the specific properties of the metal and associated waste matrix. The retention mechanisms for metals added to soil include adsorption of the metal by the soil solid surfaces and precipitation. The retention of cationic metals by soil has been correlated with such soil properties as pH, redox potential, surface area, cation exchange capacity, organic mater content, clay content, iron and manganese oxide content, and carbonate content. Anion retention has been correlated with pH, iron and manganese oxide content, and redox potential. In addition to soil properties, consideration must be given to the type of metal and its concentration and to the presence of competing ions, complexing ligands, and the pH and redox potential of the soil-waste matrix.
-  Ainsworth, C. C., D. C. Girvin, J. M. Zachara and S. C. Smith. 1989. Chromate adsorption on goethite: effects of aluminum substitution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 411-418.
-  Amrhein, C., J. E. Strong, and P. A. Mosher. 1992. Effect of deicing salts on metal and organic matter mobility in roadside soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 703-709.
-  Anderson, M. C. and D. T. Malotky. 1979. The adsorption of protolyzable anions on hydrous oxides at the isoelectric pH. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 72: 413-427.
-  Anderson, M. C., J. F. Ferguson and J. Gavis. 1976. Arsenate adsorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxide. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 54: 391-399.
-  Baham, J., N. B. Ball and G. Sposito. 1978. Gel filtration studies of trace metal-fulvic acid solutions extracted from sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 7: 181-188.
-  Baham, J. and G. Sposito. 1986. Proton and metal complexation by water-soluble ligands extracted from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 15: 239-244.
-  Balistrieri, L. S. and T. T. Chao. 1987. Selenium adsorption by goethite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51: 1145-1151.
-  Bar-Yosef, B. and D. Meek. 1987. Selenium sorption by kaolinite and montmorillonite. Soil Sci. 144: 11-19.
-  Bartlett, R. J. 1991. Chromium cycling in soils and water: links, gaps, and methods. Environ. Health Perspective 92: 17-24.
-  Bartlett, R. J. and B. James. 1979. Behavior of chromium in soils: III. oxidation. J. Environ. Qual. 8: 31-35.
-  Bartlett, R. J. and J. M. Kimble. 1976. Behavior of chromium in soils: II. hexavalent forms. J. Environ. Qual. 5: 383386.
-  Behel, D., D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers. 1983. Assessment of heavy metals equilibria in sewage sludgetreated soil. J. Environ. Qual. 12: 181-186.
-  Benjamin, M. M. 1983. Adsorption and surface precipitation of metals on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17: 686-692.
-  Benjamin, M. M. and J. O. Leckie. 1981. Multiple-site adsorption of Cd, Zn, and Pb on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 79 :209-221.
-  Benjamin, M. M. and J. O. Leckie. 1982. Effects of complexation by Cl, SO4, and S2O3 on adsorption behavior of Cd on oxide surfaces. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16: 162-170.
-  Bloomfield, C. and G. Pruden. 1980. The behavior of Cr(VI) in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A. 103-114.
-  Bolland, M. D. A., A. M. Posner and J. P. Quick. 1977. Zinc adsorption by goethite in the absence and presence of phosphate. Aust. J. Soil Res. 15: 279-286.
-  Boyd, S. A., L. E. Sommers and D. W. Nelson. 1979. Infrared spectra of sewage sludge fractions: evidence for an amide binding site. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 893-899.
-  Boyd, S. A., L. E. Sommers, D. W. Nelson and D. X. West. 1983. Copper(II) binding by humic acid extracted from sewage sludge: an electron spin resonance study. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 43-46.
-  Boyle, M. and W. H. Fuller. 1987. Effect of municipal solid waste leachate composition on zinc migration through soils. J. Environ Qual. 16: 357-360.
-  Calvet, R., S. Bourgeois, and J. J. Msaky. 1990. Some experiments on extraction of heavy metals present in soil. Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 39: 31-45.
-  Cary, E. E., W. H. Allaway and O. E. Olson. 1977. Control of chromium concentration in food plants. II. chemistry of chromium in soils and its availability to plants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25: 305-309.
-  Catts, J. G. and D. Langmuir. 1986. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn by MnO2; applicability of side binding-surface complexation model. Appl. Geochem. 1: 255-264.
-  Cavallaro, N. and M. B. McBride. 1978. Copper and cadmium adsorption characteristics of selected acid and calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 550-556.
-  Cavallaro, N. and M. B. McBride. 1980. Activities of Cu2+ and Cd2+ in soil solutions as affected by pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44: 729-732.
-  Cavallaro, N. 1982. Sorption and fixation of Cu and Zn, and phosphate by soil clays as influenced by the oxide fraction. PhD thesis. Cornell Univ. (Diss. Abstr. 8210799).
-  Chao, T. T. and R. F. Sanolone. 1989. Fractionation of soil selenium by sequential partial dissolution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 385-392.
-  Davis, J. A. 1984. Complexation of trace metals by adsorbed natural organic matter. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 48: 679-691.
-  Davis, J. A. and J. O. Leckie. 1978. Effect of adsorbed complexing ligands on trace metal uptake by hydrous oxides. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12: 1309-1315.
-  Davis, J. A. and J. O. Leckie. 1980. Surface ionization and complexation at the oxide/water interface. III. adsorption of anions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 74: 32-43.
-  Doner, H. E. 1978. Chloride as a factor in mobilities of Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 882-885.
-  Dragun, J., J. Barkach, and S. A. Mason. 1990. Misapplication of the EP-TOX, TCLP, and CAM-WET tests to derive data on migration potential of metals in soil systems. In P. T. Kostecki and E. J. Calabrese (eds.).
-  Petroleum contaminated soils. Lewis Publ. Chelsea, MI. Dudley, L. M., J. E. McLean, R. C. Sims and J. J. Jurinak. 1988. Sorption of copper and cadmium from the watersoluble fraction of an acid mine waste by two calcareous soils. Soil Sci. 145: 207- 214.
-  Dudley, L. M., J. E. McLean, T. H. Furst, and J. J. Jurinak. 1991. Sorption of Cd and Cu from an acid mine waste extract by two calcareous soils: column studies. Soil Sci. 151: 121-135.
-  Dudley, L. M., B. L. McNeal, J. E. Baham, C. S. Coray and H. H. Cheng. 1987. Characterization of soluble organic compounds and complexation of copper, nickel, and zinc in extracts of sludge-amended soils. J. Environ. Qual. 16: 341-348.
-  Dunnivant, F. M., P. M. Jardine, D. L. Taylor, and J. F. McCarthy. 1992. Cotransport of cadmium and hexachlorbiphenyl by dissolved organic carbon through columns containing aquifer material. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 360-368.
-  Eary, L. E. and D. Rai. 1991. Chromate reduction by subsurface soils under acidic conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 676-683.
-  Egozy, Y. 1980. Adsorption of cadmium and cobalt on montmorillonite as a function of solution composition. Clays Clay Min. 28: 311-318.
-  Elkhatib, E. A., O. L. Bennett and R. J. Wright. 1984a. Kinetics of arsenite sorption in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 758-762.
-  Elkhatib, E. A., O. L. Bennett and R. J. Wright. 1984b. Arsenite sorption and desorption in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 1025-1030.
-  Elliott, H. A., M. R. Liberati and C. P. Huang. 1986. Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by soils. J. Environ. Qual. 15: 214-219.
-  Elprince, A. M. and G. Sposito. 1981. Thermodynamic derivation of equations of Langmuir-type for ion equilibrium in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 277-282.
-  Elrashidi, M. A., D. C. Adriano and W. L. Lindsay. 1989. Solubility, speciation, and of selenium in soils. In L. W. Jacobs (Ed). Selenium in agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.
-  Elrashidi, M. A. and G. A. O'Connor. 1982. Influence of solution composition on sorption of zinc by soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46: 1153-1158.
-  Essen, J. and N. El Bassam. 1981. On the mobility of cadmium under aerobic soil conditions. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A. 15-31.
-  Farrah, H. and W. J. Pickering. 1976a. The adsorption of copper species by clays: I. kaolinite. Aust. J. Chem. 29: 1167-1176.
-  Farrah, H. and W. J. Pickering. 1976b. The adsorption of copper species by clays: II. illite and montmorillonite. Aust. J. Chem. 29: 1649-1656.
-  Fio, J. L., R. Fujii, and S. J. Deveral. 1991. Selenium mobility and distribution in irrigated and non-irrigated alluvial soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 1313-1320.
-  Forbes, E. A., A. M. Posner and J. P. Quick. 1976. The specific adsorption of divalent Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn on goethite. J. Soil Sci. 27: 154-166.
-  Garcia-Miragaya, J., R. Cardenas and A. L. Page. 1986. Surface loading effect on Cd and Zn sorption by kaolinite and montmorillonite from low concentration solutions. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 27: 181-190.
-  Garcia-Miragaya, J. and A. L. Page. 1976. Influence of ionic strength and complex formation on sorption of trace amounts of Cd by montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 40: 658-663.
-  Goldberg, S. and R. A. Glaubig. 1988. Anion sorption on a calcareous montmorillonite soil-selenium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 954-958.
-  Griffin, R. A. and A. K. Au. 1977. Lead adsorption by montmorillonite using a competitive Langmuir equation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41: 880-882.
-  Griffin, R. A. and N. F. Shimp. 1978. Attenuation of pollutants in municipal landfill leachate by clay minerals. EPA-600/ 2-78-157.
-  Grove, J. H. and B. G. Ellis. 1980. Extractable chromium as related to soil pH and applied chromium. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44: 238-242.
-  Gruebel, K. A., J. A. Davies and J. O. Leckie. 1988. The feasibility of using sequential extraction techniques for arsenic and selenium in soils and sediments. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 390-397.
-  Gschwend, P. M. and M. D. Reynolds. 1987. Monodisperse ferrous phosphate colloids in an anoxic groundwater plume. J. of Contaminant Hydrol. 1: 309-327.
-  Haas, C. N. and N. D. Horowitz. 1986. Adsorption of cadmium to kaolinite in the presence of organic material. Water Air Soil Pollut. 27: 131-140.
-  Harrison, R. M., D. P. H. Laxen and S. J. Wilson. 1981. Chemical associations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in street dust and roadside soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 1378-1383.
-  Harter, R. D. 1992. Competitive sorption of cobalt, copper, and nickel ions by a calcium saturated soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56: 444-449.
-  Harter, R. D. 1979. Adsorption of copper and lead by Ap and B2 horizons of several northeastern United States soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 679-683.
-  Harter, R. D. 1983. Effect soil pH on adsorption of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 47-51.
-  Harter, R. D. 1984. Curve-fit errors in Langmuir adsorption maxima. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 749-752.
-  Harter, R. D. and D. E. Baker. 1977. Application and misapplication of the Langmuir equation to soil adsorption phenomena. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41: 1077-1080.
-  Harter, R. D. and R. G. Lehmann. 1983. Use of kinetics for the study of exchange reactions in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 666-669.
-  Hendrickson, L. L. and R. B. Corey. 1981. Effect of equilibrium metal concentration on apparent selectivity coefficients of soil complexes. Soil Sci. 131: 163-171.
-  Hickey, M. G. and J. A. Kittrick. 1984. Chemical partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in soils and sediments containing high levels of heavy metals. J. Environ. Qual. 13: 372-376.
-  Hingston, F. J., A. M. Posner, and J. P. Quick. 1971. Competitive adsorption of negatively charged ligands on oxide surfaces. Faraday Soc. 52: 334-342.
-  Hirsch, D., S. Nir and A. Banin. 1989. Prediction of cadmium complexation in solution and adsorption to montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 716-721.
-  Inskeep, W. P. and J. Baham. 1983. Competitive complexation of Cd(II) and Cu(II) by water-soluble organic ligands and Na-montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 1109-1115.
-  James, B. R. and R. J. Bartlett. 1983a. Behavior of chromium in soils: V. fate of organically complexed Cr(II) added to soil. J. Environ. Qual. 12: 169-172.
-  James, B. R. and R. J. Bartlett. 1983b. Behavior of chromium in soils, VI. Interaction between oxidation-reduction and organic complexation. J. Environ. Qual. 12: 173-176.
-  James, B. J. and R. J. Bartlett. 1983c. Behavior of chromium in soils. VII. Adsorption and reduction of hexavalent forms. J. Environ. Qual. 12: 177-181.
-  James, R. O. and T. W. Healy. 1972. Adsorption of hydrolyzable metal ions at the oxide-water interface: III. thermodynamic model of adsorption. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 40: 65-81.
-  Jenne, E. A. 1968. Control of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in soils and water-the dominant role of hydrous manganese and iron oxides. Adv. in Chem. 7: 337-387.
-  Jurinak, J. J. and N. Bauer. 1956. Thermodynamics of zinc adsorption on calcite, colomite, and magnesite-type minerals. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20: 466-471.
-  Khan, S., D. Nonden and N. N. Khan. 1982. The mobility of some heavy metals through Indian red soil. Environ. Pollut. Ser. B. 119-125.
-  Kheboian, C. and C. F. Bauer. 1987. Accuracy of selective extraction procedures for metal speciation in model aquatic sediments. Anal. Chem. 59: 1417-1423.
-  Kinniburgh, D. G. and M. L. Jackson. 1978. Adsorption of mercury (II) by iron hydrous oxide gel. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 45-47.
-  Korte, N. E., J. Skopp, W. H. Fuller, E. E. Niebla and B. A. Aleshii. 1976. Trace element movement in soils: influence of soil physical and chemical properties. Soil Sci. 122: 350-359.
-  Kramer, J. R. and H. E. Allen. 1988. Metal speciation: theory, analysis and application. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI.
-  Kuo, S. and A. S. Baker. 1980. Sorption of copper, zinc, and cadmium by some acid soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44: 969-974.
-  Kuo, S., P. E. Heilman and A. S. Baker. 1983. Distribution and forms of copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in soils near a copper smelter. Soil Sci. 135: 101-109.
-  Kuo, S. and B. L. Mc Neal. 1984. Effect of pH and phosphate on cadmium sorption by a hydrous ferric oxide. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 1040-1044.
-  Kurdi, F. and H. E. Doner. 1983. Zinc and copper sorption an interaction in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 873-876.
-  Lake, D. L., P. W. W. Kirk and J. N. Lester. 1984. Fractionation, characterization, and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and sludge-amended soils: a review. J. Environ. Qual. 13: 175-183.
-  Latterell, J. J., R. H. Dowdy and W. E. Larson. 1978. Correlation of extractable metals and metal uptake of snap beans grown on soil amended with sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 7: 435-440.
-  Lehmann, R. G. and R. D. Harter. 1984. Assessment of copper-soil bond strength by desorption kinetics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 769-772.
-  Lindsay, W. L. 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons. New York.
-  Loganathan, P. and R. G. Burau. 1973. Sorption of heavy metals by a hydrous manganese oxide. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 37: 1277-1293.
-  Martell, A. E. and R. M. Smith. 1974-1982. Critical stability constants, 5 vols., Plenum Press, New York.
-  Mattigod, S. V. and G. Sposito. 1979. Chemical modeling of trace metals equilibrium in contaminated soil solutions using the computer program GEOCHEM. In E. A. Jenne (ed.). Chemical modeling in aqueous systems. ACS No. 93, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C.
-  Mattigod, S. V., G. Sposito, and A. L. Page. 1981. Factors affecting the solubilities of trace metals in soils. In D. E. Baker (Ed.). Chemistry in the soil environment. ASA Special Publication No 40. Amer. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, WI.
-  McBride, M. B. 1977. Copper (II) interaction with kaolinite factors controlling adsorption. Clays Clay Miner. 26: 101106.
-  McBride, M. B. 1980. Chemisorption of Cd2+ on calcite surfaces. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44: 26-28.
-  McBride, M. B. 1982. Hydrolysis and dehydration reactions of exchangeable Cu2+ on hectorite. Clays Clay Miner. 30: 200-206.
-  McBride, M. B. 1985. Sorption of copper(II) on aluminum hydroxide as affected by phosphate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49: 843-846.
-  McBride, M. B. and J. J. Blasiak. 1979. Zinc and copper solubility as a function of pH in an acidic soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 866-870.
-  McBride, M. B. and D. R. Bouldin. 1984. Long-term reactions of copper(II) in a contaminated calcareous soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 56059.
-  McLaren, R. G. and D. V. Crawford. 1973. Studies on soil copper: II. the specific adsorption of copper by soils. J. Soil Sci. 24: 443-452.
-  Miller, W. P., D. C. Martens and L. W. Zelazny. 1986. Effect of sequence in extraction of trace metals from soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50: 598-601.
-  Neal, R. H. and G. Sposito. 1986. Effects of soluble organic matter and sewage sludge amendments on cadmium sorption by soils at low cadmium concentrations. Soil Sci. 142: 164-172.
-  Neal, R. H. and G. Sposito. 1989. Selenate adsorption on alluvial soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 70-74.
-  Neal, R. H., G. Sposito, K. M. Holtzclaw and S. J. Trania. 1987a. Selenite adsorption on alluvial soils: I. soil composition and pH effects. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51: 1161-1165.
-  Neal, R. H., G. Sposito, K. M. Holtzclaw and S. J. Traina. 1987b. Selenite adsorption on alluvial soils: II. composition effects. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51: 1165-1169.
-  O'Connor, G. A., C. O'Connor and G. R. Cline. 1984. Sorption of cadmium by calcareous soils: influence of solution composition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48: 1244-1247.
-  Oscarson, D. W., P. M. Huang, W. K. Liaw and U. T. Hammer. 1983. Kinetics of oxidation of arsenite by various manganese dioxides. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 644-648.
-  Palmer, C. D. and P. R. Wittbrodt. 1991. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites. Environ. Health Perspectives 92: 25-40.
-  Pierce, M. L. and C. B. Moore. 1980. Adsorption of arsenite on amorphous iron hydroxide from dilute aqueous solution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14: 214-216.
-  Puls, R. W., R. M. Powell, D. Clark, and C. J. Eldred. 1991. Effect of pH, solid/solution ratio, ionic strength, and organic acids on Pb and Cd sorption on kaolinite. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 57-58: 423-430.
-  Puls, R. W., R. M. Powell, D. A. Clark, and C. J. Paul. 1991. Facilitated transport of inorganic contaminants in ground water: Part II. colloidal transport. EPA/600/M-91/040. U.S. EPA Robert S. Kerr Environ. Res. Lab., Ada, OK.
-  Puls, R. W. and H. L. Bohn. 1988. Sorption of cadmium, nickel, and zinc by kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 1289-1292.
-  Rai, D., B. M. Sass and D. A. Moore. 1987. Chromium (III) hydrolysis constants and solubility of chromium (III) hydroxide. Inorg. Chem. 26: 345-349.
-  Rajan, S. S. S. 1979. Adsorption of selenite, phosphate, and sulphate on iron hydrous oxides. J. Soil Sci. 30: 709-718.
-  Rapin, F., A. Tessier, P. G. C. Campbell and R. Carignan. 1986. Potential artifacts in the determination of metal partitioning in sediments by a sequential extraction procedure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20: 836-840.
-  Rogers, R. D. 1979. Volatility of mercury from soils amended with various mercury compounds. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 289-291.
-  Rogers, R. D. 1976. Methylation of mercury in agricultural soils. J. Environ. Qual. 5: 454-458.
-  Rogers, R. D. 1977. Abiological methylation of mercury in soil. J. Environ. Qual. 6: 463-467.
-  Santillan-Medrano, J. and J. J. Jurinak. 1975. The chemistry of lead and cadmium in soils: solid phase formation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29: 851-856.
-  Sheets, P. J. and W. H. Fuller. 1986. Transport of cadmium by organic solvents through soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50: 2428.
-  Shuman, L. M. 1975. The effect of soil properties on zinc adsorption by soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39: 454-458.
-  Shuman, L. M. 1986. Effect of ionic strength and anions on zinc adsorption by two soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50: 14381442.
-  Silviera, D. J. and L. E. Sommers. 1977. Extractability of copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead in soils incubated with sewage sludge. J. Environ. Qual. 6: 47-52.
-  Singh, M., N. Singh and P. S. Relan. 1981. Adsorption and desorption of selenite and selenate selenium on different soils. Soil Sci. 132: 134-141.
-  Sparks, D. L. 1989. Kinetics of soil chemical processes. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.
-  Sposito, G. 1979. Derivation of the Langmuir equation for ion exchange reactions in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 197198.
-  Sposito, G. 1989. The chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press. New York.
-  Sposito, G., F. T. Bingham, S. S. Yadav and C. A. Inwye. 1982. Trace metal complexation by fulvic acid extracted from sewage sludge. II. development of chemical models. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46: 51-56.
-  Sposito, G., K. M. Holtzclaw and C. S. LeVesque-Madore. 1979. Cupric ion complexation by fulvic acid extracted sewage sludge-soil mixtures. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 1148-1155.
-  Sposito, G., K. M. Holtzclaw and C. S. LeVesque-Madore. 1981. Trace metal complexation by fulvic acid extracted from sewage sludge: I. determination of stability constants and linear correlation analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 465-468.
-  Sposito, G. 1982. On the use of the Langmuir equation in the interpretation of adsorption phenomena: II. the "two surface" Langmuir equation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46: 1147-1152.
-  Sposito, G., C. S. LeVesque, J. P. LeClaire and N. Senesi. 1984. Methodologies to predict the mobility and availability of hazardous metals in sludge-amended soils. California Water Resource Center. University of California, Davis, CA.
-  Stahl, R. S. and B. R. James. 1991. Zinc sorption by B horizon soils as a function of pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 1592-1597.
-  Stanton, D. A. and R. Du T. Burger. 1970. Studies on zinc selected Orange Free State soils: V. mechanisms for reaction of zinc with iron and aluminum oxides. Agrochemophysica. 2: 65-76.
-  Stevenson, F. J. 1991. Organic matter-micronutrient reaction sin soil. In J. J. Mortvedt (ed.). Micronutrients in agriculture. Soil Soc. Soc. Amer. Book Series #4. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Inc., Madison, WI.
-  Stevenson, F. J. and A. Fitch. 1986. Chemistry of complexation of metal ions with soil solution organics. In P. M. Huang and M. Schnitzer (eds.). Interactions of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes. Soil Sci Soc. Special Publ. No 17, Soil Sci Soc. Amer., Madison, WI.
-  Stollenwerk, K. G. and D. B. Grove. 1985. Adsorption and desorption of hexavalent chromium in an alluvial aquifer near Telluride, Colorado. J. Environ. Qual. 14: 150-155.
-  Tessier, A., P. G. C. Campbell and M. Bisson. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particular trace metals. Anal. Chem. 51: 844-850.
-  Tessier, A., P. G. C. Campbell, and M Bisson. 1980. Trace metal speciation in the Yamaoka and St. Francois Rivers (Quebec). Can. J. Earth Sci. 17: 90-105.
-  Tiller, K. G., J. Gerth and G. Brummer. 1984. The relative affinities of Cd, Ni, and Zn for different soil clay fractions and goethite. Geoderma. 34: 17-35.
-  Tipping, E., N. B. Hetherington and J. Hilton. 1985. Artifacts in use of selective chemical extraction to determine distribution of metals between oxides of manganese and iron. Anal. Chem. 57: 1944-1946.
-  Travis, C. C. and E. L. Etnier. 1981. A survey of sorption relationships for reactive solutes in soils. J. Environ. Qual. 10: 8-17.
-  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Test methods for evaluating solid waste: physical/chemical methods. SW-846. USEPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, D. C.
-  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. MINTEQ2, an equilibrium metal speciation model: user's manual. USEPA, EPA/600/3-87/012. Athens, GA.
-  Veith, J. A. and G. Sposito. 1977. On the use of the Langmuir equation in the interpretation of adsorption phenomena. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41: 697-702.
-  Woolson, E. A. 1977a. Fate of arsenicals in different environmental substrate. Environ. Health Perpect. 19: 7381.
-  Woolson, E. A. 1977b. Generation of allsylarsines from soil. Weed Sci. 25: 412-416.
-  Woolson, E. A., J. H. Axley and P. C. Kearney. 1971. The chemistry and phytotoxicity of arsenic in soils. I contaminated field soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35: 938943.
-  Zachara, J. M., D. C. Girvin, R. L. Schmidt and C. T. Resch. 1987. Chromate adsorption on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide in presence of major ground water ions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21: 589-594.
-  Zarchara, J. M., C. C. Ainsworth, C. E. Cowan and C. T. Resch. 1989. Adsorption of chromate by subsurface soil horizons. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 418-428.
-  Zarchara, J. M., C. E. Cowan, R. L. Schmidt and C. C. Ainsworth. 1988. Chromate adsorption on kaolinite. Clays Clay Miner. 36: 317-326.
-  Zasoski, R. J. and R. G. Burau. 1988. Sorption and sorptive interaction of cadmium and zinc on hydrous manganese oxide. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 81-87.
Publication order reference